AAC  >> Vol. 5 No. 3 (August 2015)

    质谱分析科学的新进展—记黄本立院士和他所在团队的科研活动
    New Progress of Mass Spectrometry Science—Review of Scientific Research Work for Academician Huang and His Group

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作者:  

朱建中:华东师范大学化学与分子工程学院,上海;
王素文:上海市环境科学研究院,上海

关键词:
质谱激光烧融和离化等离子动力学固体直接分析无标准半定量分析Mass Spectrometry Laser Ablation and Ionization Plasma Dynamics Direct Analysis of Solids Standardless Semi-Quantitative Elemental Analysis

摘要:

黄本立院士及其所在的科研团队在质谱领域做了大量的开创性的研究工作,若干工作在国内外起到了引领作用。在仪器研制方面:1) 样品离子引入与飞行路线正交,避免不同元素动能对分析的影响;2) 采用飞秒级极窄脉冲和7 × 1013 W/cm2高辐照的激光器,大大减少基体效应和元素的分馏效应;3) 用氦作缓冲气体,适度冷却等离子体及避免周围空气的卷入,降低多价离子和多原子离子的干扰,获得明晰的谱线和清晰的背景;这些改进使质谱技术的分析性能达到前所未有的高度,如分辨率达7000,检出限达10−6~10−7 g/g,覆盖6~7数量级的动态范围。为等离子体的基础研究和质谱广泛的应用奠定了坚实的基础。在基础研究方面:1) 激光诱导等离子体离子动能分布研究,获得了等离子体形成和发展动力学知识;2) 探索激光诱导等离子体温度与激光波长、脉冲宽度、激光能量、辅助缓冲气体压力和样品硬度等之间的关系,为获取最优的分析性能提供了理论依据;3) 辅助缓冲气体离子源的研究,有效地降低离子的动能和多价离子的干扰。4) 建立飞行时间质谱仪二维分离技术,通过离子的初始动能及其质荷比的不同实现二维分离,实现了把分析物离子从多价离子和气体类离子中分离出来。在应用方面,把质谱分析技术应用范围扩大到前所未有的广度,若干应用具有里程碑意义:1) 半定量无标准固体中金属和非金属元素的直接分析;2) 古瓷碎片分析;3) 薄层剖面分析;4) 形态分析;5) 矿物分析;6) 有机化合物分析;7) 生物样品分析。

Academician Huang Benli and his research group have done a lot of groundbreaking research work in the field of mass spectrometry, some of which are pioneer works in the world. The pioneer works in the instrument design include: 1) Orthogonalizing the introduction of the sample ion and flight routes to avoid the influence of the kinetic energy for different element on the analysis; 2) using pulses laser with several femtoseconds (fs) width and 7 × 1013 W/cm2 of high irradiation to reduce the matrix effect and the fractionation effect of elements; 3) using helium as buffer gas to moderate cooling plasma and avoid the involvement of the surrounding air, which reduce the interference of multiply charged ions and polyatomic ions and obtain an explicit spectrum and clear background. Due to these works, the performance of mass spectrometry analysis reached an unprecedented height. For instance, the resolution reached 7000, the detection limit reached 10−6 - 10−7 g/g, and the dynamic range covered 6 - 7 orders of magnitude. A solid foundation has been thereby established for the basic research of plasma and the wide application of mass spectrometry. Furthermore, they also made great achievements in the fundamental research, including: 1) the study of ion kinetic energy distribution in the laser induced plasma developed the knowledge theory of dynamics of the plasma formation and expansion; 2) the exploration of the relationship between the laser induced plasma temperature and the laser wavelength, laser energy, pulse width, auxiliary buffer gas pressure and the sample hardness etc., provided the theoretical base for obtaining the optimal analysis performance; 3) the study of auxiliary buffer gas ion source for effectively reduced the ion kinetic energy and the interference of multiply charged ions; 4) the es-tablishment of two-dimensional separation technology for time-of-flight mass spectrometer, rea-lized the two dimensional separation of ions by their initial kinetic energy in one dimension and their mass-to-charge ratios in the other dimension and achieved the separation of analyte ions from multiply charged ions and gas species ions. Finally they made a great contribution to the application of the mass spectrometry technology including: 1) the semi-quantitative direct analysis of metal and nonmetal elements in the solid samples; 2) analysis of ancient ceramics; 3) thin layers depth profile analysis; 4) morphological analysis; 5) mineral analysis; 6) analysis of organic compounds (including fragments and polyatomic molecule polymer); 7) biological sample analysis.

文章引用:
朱建中, 王素文. 质谱分析科学的新进展—记黄本立院士和他所在团队的科研活动[J]. 分析化学进展, 2015, 5(3): 26-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/AAC.2015.53004

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