“印度板块”研究回顾及思维再完善—换个方式审视地球 暨庆祝中国地质博物馆建馆100周年(1916-2016)Retrospective and Complement to Research on “Indian Plate”—Change a Way to Look at the Earth
裂谷系, 欧亚板块, 印度-印支板块, 印度板块, 东经九十度海岭Rift System, Eurasian Plate, Indian-Indochina Plate, Indian Plate, Ninety East Ridge
《Advances in Geosciences》, Vol.6 No.4, 2016-08-30
At about 200 ma ago, Gondwanaland was split by a rift system, according to the development process of present East African Rift system, into South America Plate, Africa Plate, Australia Plate, Antarctic Plate and India-Indochina Plate. The rift system itself developed to the present Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Indian Ridges, and Pacific Ridges gradually. Triassic dinosaurs, found at both Indian and Indo-China plates, showed that Indo-China Plate was also a part of Gondwanaland and that Indian Plate and Indo-China Plate were located together as Indian-Indo-China Plate. When separated from Gondwanaland, and collided with South-China Plate, it was merged in Eurasian Plate at the Equator in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic period. The collision had brought Gondwana fauna like sea reptiles Ichthyosaurus, crinoids, and terrestrial dinosaurs to South China (Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, etc.). In its further movement northward, Indian-Indo-China Plate was split by the Ninety East Ridge into two parts from south to north: Indo-China Plate at its east and Indian Plate at its west. Indian Plate, driven jointly by the Ninety East Ridge and Maldive Ridge, moved northward and collided with Eurasian Plate again, at the region of present Himalaya, forming present Himalaya topography. The two collisions were caused by the forming of rift systems. So understanding the formation of the rift systems is the key to reconstruct the route of Indian Plate movement which in turns helps to interpret many geological phenomena happened since Mesozoic.