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河北太行山区土地利用变化及其景观生态风险分析Analysis of Land Use Change and Landscape Ecological Risk in Taihang Mountain, Hebei Province
许宁, 张广录, 高志强, 王秋贤
土地利用变化, 景观生态风险, GIS空间分析, 河北太行山区Land Use Change; Landscape Ecological Risk Assessment; GIS Spatial Analyst; Taihang Mountain in Hebei Province
《Advances in Geosciences》, Vol.3 No.6, 2013-12-26
本文以河北太行山区为研究区，定量研究了1990年、2000年和2008年该区土地利用变化情况，并从土地利用变化和景观结构角度构建景观生态风险评价模型，定量分析了该区景观生态风险的时空动态变化特征。结果表明：18年间，河北太行山区土地利用结构变化明显，各地类之间的转化复杂、频繁，土地利用结构的变化导致景观生态风险指数发生显著的时空差异。研究区景观生态风险总体呈下降趋势，总的分布规律是从西部亚高山区到东部平原区依次升高，呈明显的条带状分布。较低和低生态风险区分布在研究区西部的亚高山和中山区，中生态风险区分布在山区和平原的过渡地区，城乡交错带和湖泊水库区生态风险较高，在黄壁庄水库和沙河市的中东部生态风险最高。应加强中级以上景观生态风险区域的生态保护与建设，以实现河北太行山区的生态环境与社会经济的可持续发展。Land use change and landscape ecological risk analysis serve as the basis for realizing regional land ecological security and sustainable development. In this paper, Taihang Mountain in Hebei Province was chosen as the study area. GIS spatial analysis was employed to make the layer algebra operation of the interpretation data of the TM remote sensing images in 1990, 2000 and 2008, quantitatively study the change of land use and the transformation of land use type in this region. Additionally, the ecological security assessment model comprising a landscape disturbance index and a land use sensitivity was established by the respect of land use change and landscape structure to quantitatively analyze spatial-temporal variation character of landscape ecological risk. Results showed that the change of land use and the transformation of land use type showed comparatively complex among the 18 years. What’s more, the main types of transformations of land use are focused among farm land, woodland and grassland. Besides, obvious spatial- temporal difference was found in the distribution of ecological risk associated with the intensity and pattern of land use change. As a whole, the landscape ecological risk showed a downward trend in the past 18 years, with the main principle that distribution increased successively from the western high mountains to the eastern plains, in the obvious zonal structure. Low and lower risk areas distributed mainly in the western mountainous areas; Medium risk areas was mainly in the mountain-plain-transition-belt; The higher and highest risk areas distributed in the rural-urban ecotone, land around lakes and reservoirs; The Huangbizhuang reservoir and the east-central part of Shahe City were highest. To promote sustainable development of the ecological environment and the social economy, ecological protection and construction should be strengthened in the areas with intermediate ecological risk in the Taihang Mountains in Hebei Province.