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生油的哲学思考Philosophical Thinking of Petroleum Generation
陈星州, 陈振岩, 李军生
石油, 天然气, 生成, 烃源岩, 加热, 哲学思考Oil; Gas; Generation; Source Rock; Heating; Philosophical Thinking
《Advances in Geosciences》, Vol.4 No.1, 2014-02-28
在对油气生成理论、勘探开发中的实例及勘探开发技术发展趋势进行研究的基础上，提出了加热烃源岩以生成新的油气资源的观点。多年的油气勘探开发实践证明，在地层中存在着为数众多的、良好的烃源岩；现代生烃理论认为，在干酪根降解生成油气的过程中，涉及温度与时间两个因素，温度与时间可以互补，若温度很高，即使时间较短，也可生成油气；在油气勘探开发过程中，在地层中发现了大量的岩浆岩，研究表明，由于存在岩浆岩热效应，加速了其围岩中烃源岩的成熟和生烃作用；烃源岩生烃模拟实验证明，在温度较高的情况下，烃源岩可以快速生成油气；在油气开采实践中，已经采用了蒸汽吞吐、蒸汽驱以及火烧油层等加热油层的方法。在油页岩的开采中，使用了传导加热、对流加热、辐射加热等3类加热技术。这些研究及探索工作为加热烃源岩生成油气提供了技术上的想象空间。综合以上研究结果认为，从理论、实践和技术上，都证明了通过加热烃源岩来生成油气资源具有一定的可行性，随着科学技术的飞速发展，通过全人类长期的努力，一定会找到可以用来加热烃源岩以生成新的油气资源的技术方法，为人类的发展提供新的、不竭的能源动力。This paper puts forward an argument of generating new hydrocarbon resources by heating up source rock based on investigations and researches on theories of hydrocarbon generation, the real cases of exploration and development, as well as the trend of technical development. Practices in oil and gas exploration and development through years have demonstrated that a huge amount of good hydrocarbon source rocks exist in the formations; the modern theory of hydrocarbon generation believes that the process of kerogen degradation and hydrocarbon generation involves two factors, temperature and time, which are complementary, i.e. if the temperature is very high, it is possible to generate oil and gas even though the time is short; in the history of oil and gas exploration, magmatic rocks have been found to be numerous in the formations, and such rocks possess heat effect which can accelerate the maturation and hydrocarbon generation process of source rock in adjacent formation; simulation experiments indicate that source rock can generate oil and gas rapidly under higher temperature. Many thermal recovery techniques of heating up formations have been applied such as cyclic steam stimulation, steam flood and in situ combustion. In the recovery of oil shale, three types of heating technologies are employed including heat conduction, heat convection and heat radiation. These researches and surveys have provided a technical imaginary space for generating hydrocarbon by heating up source rock. It is believed through above researches that it is theoretically, practically and technically feasible to generate oil and gas through heating up source rock. Technologies are destined to be found out to generate new hydrocarbon resources by heating up source rocks along with fast development of science and technology and through long efforts of all the people, thus offering unexhausted energy momentum for humanity development.