AP  >> Vol. 6 No. 2 (February 2016)

    博弈实验研究范式下独生儿童的涉他偏好
    Other-Regarding Preferences in Only Children: An Experimental Study Based on Game Theory

  • 全文下载: PDF(497KB) HTML   XML   PP.121-133   DOI: 10.12677/AP.2016.62016  
  • 下载量: 1,498  浏览量: 5,618   国家科技经费支持

作者:  

郭庆科,虞树双:山东师范大学心理学院,山东 济南

关键词:
独生儿童涉他偏好博弈实验同胞关系Only Child Other-Regarding Preferences Game Theory Sibling Relationship

摘要:

自2016年起我国不再执行独生子女政策。但在未来相当长的一段时间内独生子女家庭仍然占据很大比重。关于独生儿童的性格培养和教育仍然是社会关注的热点。对独生与非独生儿童在个性、品德等方面的差异国内外的结论并不一致。本研究采用博弈实验范式考察了独生和非独生小学生在涉他偏好上的差异。结果显示:独生儿童的分配行为更具有亲社会性,且更可能属于公平型,非独生儿童更可能属于嫉妒型;两类儿童的利他总分及属于利他型和经济人型的比例不存在显著差异。总体上看独生儿童的涉他偏好行为并不比非独生儿童差,甚至在有些方面要优于非独生儿童。本研究对独生子女偏见进行了有力的反驳。

The controversy over the only children has been the focus of society. Most native and abroad re-search focused on personality and morality of the only children has not been consistent. The game theoretical paradigm provides a new approach and perspective to study the difference of other- regarding preferences in the only children and those who have siblings. The results showed that only children’s resource allocations were more prosocial and egalitarian, while there is a smaller fraction of spiteful types in single children than in non-single children; for altruistic total scores, altruistic types and homo economics types, we did not find any significant difference between pupils who were only children and pupils who have siblings. The findings suggest that single children are not at any disadvantage compared to their peers who have siblings and they enjoy some advantages even in some aspects.

文章引用:
郭庆科, 虞树双 (2016). 博弈实验研究范式下独生儿童的涉他偏好. 心理学进展, 6(2), 121-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/AP.2016.62016

参考文献

[1] 方拴锋, 经承学, 王琳琳(2010). 独生子女与非独生子女心理健康状况分析. 临床合理用药杂志, 3(10), 49-50.
[2] 国家统计局(2014). 中国统计年鉴. 北京: 中国统计出版社.
[3] 刘苓, 陈蕴(2011). 独生与非独生子女初中生的心理特征及家庭精神环境比较. 中国健康心理学杂志, 19(11), 1355- 1357.
[4] 张晓文(2001). 独生子女与非独生子女大学生个性发展及心理健康状况的比较研究. 人口与社会, 17(2), 36-38.
[5] 张宇, 王冰(2012). 观念改变世界——“世界价值观调查”研究评介. 华中科技大学学报: 社会科学版, 26(4), 101-107.
[6] 郑日昌, 肖蓓苓(1983). 对中学生创造力的测验研究. 心理学报, 4, 445-452.
[7] Bauer, M., Cassar, A., Chytilová, J., & Henrich, J. (2014). War’s Enduring Effects on the Development of Egalitarian Motivations and In-Group Biases. Psychological Science, 25, 47-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613493444
[8] Blake, J. (1981). Family Size and the Quality of Children. De-mography, 18, 421-442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2060941
[9] Bobbitt-Zeher, D., & Downey, D. B. (2013). Number of Siblings and Friendship Nominations among Adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 34, 1175-1193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X12470370
[10] Bohannon, E. W. (2012). The Only Child in a Family. The Pe-dagogical Seminary, 5, 475-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08919402.1898.10534031
[11] Bowlby, J. (2008). A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York: Basic Books.
[12] Buist, K. L., & Vermande, M. (2014). Sibling Re-lationship Patterns and Their Associations with Child Competence and Problem Behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 529-537.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036990
[13] Buist, K. L., Deković, M., & Prinzie, P. (2013). Sibling Rela-tionship Quality and Psychopathology of Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 97-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.007
[14] Cameron, L., Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L. et al. (2013). Little Emperors: Behavioral Impacts of China’s One-Child Policy. Science, 339, 953-957.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1230221
[15] Doh, H. S. (1999). Social Competence, Maternal Attentiveness, and Overprotectiveness: Only Children in Korea. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 149-162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/016502599384044
[16] Downey, D. B. (1995). When Bigger Is Not Better: Family Size, Parental Resources, and Children’s Educational Performance. American Sociological Review, 60, 746-761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096320
[17] Downey, D. B., & Condron, D. J. (2004). Playing Well with Others in Kin-dergarten: The Benefit of Siblings at Home. Journal of Marriage & Family, 66, 333-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00024.x
[18] Downey, D. B., Condron, D. J., & Yucel, D. (2013). Number of Siblings and Social Skills Revisited among American Fifth Graders. Journal of Family Issues, 36, 273-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X13507569
[19] Ernst, F., Helen, B., & Bettina, R. (2008). Egalitarianism in Young Children. Nature, 454, 1079-1083.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07155
[20] Falbo, T., & Polit, D. F. (1986). Quantitative Review of the Only Child Literature: Research Evidence and Theory Development. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 176-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.100.2.176
[21] Fehr, E., Glätzle-Rützler, D., & Sutter, M. (2013). The Devel-opment of Egalitarianism, Altruism, Spite and Parochialism in Childhood and Adolescence. European Economic Review, 64, 369-383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2013.09.006
[22] Feinberg, M. E., Sakuma, K. L., Hostetler, M., & Mchale, S. M. (2013). Enhancing Sibling Relationships to Prevent Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Theory, Design and Feasibility of Siblings Are Special. Evaluation & Program Planning, 36, 97-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2012.08.003
[23] Ji-Yeon, K., Mchale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Wayne, O. (2007). Longitudinal Linkages between Sibling Relationships and Adjustment from Middle Childhood through Adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 960-973.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.960
[24] Lee, M. H. (2011). The One-Child Policy and Gender Equality in Education in China: Evidence from Household Data. Journal of Family & Economic Issues, 33, 41-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10834-011-9277-9
[25] Mackinnon-Lewis, C., Starnes, R., Volling, B., & Johnson, S. (1997) Perceptions of Parenting as Predictors of Boys’ Sibling and Peer Relations. Developmental Psychology, 33, 1024-1031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.1024
[26] Mccoy, J. K., & Stoneman, Z. (1994). A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Relationships as Mediators of the Link between Family Processes and Youths’ Best Friendships. Family Relations, 43, 400-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585371
[27] Neil, T., & Dieter, W. (2015). Aggression between Siblings: Associations with the Home Environment and Peer Bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 41, 14-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21557
[28] Piaget, J. (1997). The Moral Judgment of the Child. New York: Simon and Schuster.
[29] Shalash, F. M., & Parker, N. D. W. T. S. (2013). Our Problems Are Your Sibling’s Fault: Exploring the Connections between Conflict Styles of Siblings during Adolescence and Later Adult Committed Relationships. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41, 288-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2012.698205
[30] Shao, Y., Huang, Z., Yao, X., & Li, Y. (2013). Personality and Life Satisfaction in China: The Birth Order Effect under the Influence of National Policy. Personality & Individual Differences, 54, 536-541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.001
[31] Solmeyer, A. R., Mchale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2014). Longi-tudinal Associations between Sibling Relationship Qualities and Risky Behavior across Adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 50, 600-610.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033207
[32] Stamatov, S. D., & Jacek, S. (1986). Comparative Study of Behavioral Qualities of Only Children and Sibling Children. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 57, 357-361.
[33] Wang, D., Kato, N., Inaba, Y., Tango, T., Yoshida, Y., Kusaka, Y. et al. (2000). Physical and Personality Traits of Preschool Children in Fuzhou, China: Only Child vs. Sibling. Child Care Health & Development, 26, 49-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.2000.00143.x
[34] Wang, M., Chen, Y., Fu, J. et al. (2007). Personality De-velopment: 18-Year Follow-Up Study of the Single, Non-Single Children in Nanjing, China. World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review, 2, 118-122.
[35] Yucel, D. (2014). Number of Siblings and Personality: Evidence among Eighth Graders from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). Social Science Journal, 51, 100-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2013.07.008
[36] Yucel, D., & Downey, D. B. (2014). When Quality Trumps Quantity: Siblings and the Development of Peer Relationships. Child Indicators Research, 8, 1-21.