JAPC  >> Vol. 6 No. 1 (February 2017)

    论气液相溶态与气液相混态的区分及其验证实验
    The Difference between Gas-Liquid Dissolving State and Gas-Liquid Mixing State and Its Verification Tests

  • 全文下载: PDF(417KB) HTML   XML   PP.26-36   DOI: 10.12677/JAPC.2017.61004  
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作者:  

江正杰:山东工商学院人文与传播学院,山东 烟台;
王全杰:烟台大学化学化工学院,山东 烟台

关键词:
气液相溶态气液相混态分子运动论溶解度定律亨利定律拉乌尔定律Gas-Liquid Dissolving State Gas-Liquid Mixing State Kinetic Theory Law of Solubility Henry’s Law Raoult’s Law

摘要:

气体溶质溶于水所得到的水溶液可以分为两种基本形态:气液相溶态、气液相混态,气液相溶态是气体溶质和液体溶剂水发生极性反应或其他化学反应后得到的液态与液态相溶态,相溶前后气体溶质经过一个液化放热的过程;气液相混态是气体溶质和液体溶剂(水)没有发生极性反应或水合反应以及离解和缔合现象后得到的气态与液态的相混态,是气体溶质均匀扩散到液体溶剂中的结果,即水溶液中的气体溶质从气体分子运动能量的角度来看仍然保持特殊的“气态”,相溶前后气体溶质由于温度没有达到液化点,故没有经过一个液化放热的过程。气液相溶态的溶解度一般大于1,气液相混态溶解度一般小于1。气液相溶态、气液相混态分别符合拉乌尔定律和亨利定律的适用条件。关于这一点可以设计简单的戊烷水溶液的实验来验证。液态的水中也存在气态的水,蒸发是这气态的水分子溢出水面的过程。实验证实在常温下水的蒸发量与水柱高或水量存在相关性。

The aqueous solution of gas solute dissolved in water can be divided into two basic forms: gas-liquid dissolved state and gas-liquid mixed state. The gas-liquid dissolved state is shown as the dissolved state of liquids after the polar reaction or other chemical reactions of gas solute and liquid solvent water. Before and after dissolution, the gas solute is subjected to a process of liquefaction and exotherm. The gas-liquid mixed state is shown as the mixed state of gas and liquid after the gas solute and liquid solvent (water) have no polar reaction or hydration reaction as well as dissociation and association. It is resulted from the uniform diffusion of gas solute into the liquid solvent, that is, the gas solute in the aqueous solution remains a special “gaseous state” in terms of the kinetic energy of gas molecules. As the temperature does not reach the liquefaction point, gas solute does not go through a liquefaction process then. The solubility of gas-liquid dissolved state is generally greater than 1, while the solubility of gas-liquid mixed state is generally less than 1. The gas-liquid dissolved state and gas-liquid mixed state are in line with the applicable conditions of Raoul’s law and Henry’s law respectively, which can be verified by a simple experiment of pentane aqueous solution. Gaseous water is also a form of water existing in the liquid water, the molecules of which can overflow the water surface through evaporation. The experiment shows that the evaporation of water at room temperature is correlated with the water column height or water quantity.

文章引用:
江正杰, 王全杰. 论气液相溶态与气液相混态的区分及其验证实验[J]. 物理化学进展, 2017, 6(1): 26-36. https://doi.org/10.12677/JAPC.2017.61004

参考文献

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