JWRR  >> Vol. 6 No. 2 (April 2017)

    云南坡耕地治理水土保持监测方法探索研究
    Exploratory Study on Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring for Sloping Cultivated Land in Yunnan

  • 全文下载: PDF(426KB) HTML   XML   PP.187-195   DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2017.62022  
  • 下载量: 136  浏览量: 654   科研立项经费支持

作者:  

文朝菊:云南省水文水资源局,云南 昆明

关键词:
坡耕地自然降雨模拟降雨土壤侵蚀强度监测方法分析研究Sloping Cultivated Land Nature Rainfall Simulated Rainfall Soil Erosion Intensity Monitoring Method Analysis and Research

摘要:

选取水土流失严重的5个治理小流域为研究对象,采用叠加喷洒式模拟降雨控制系统,探索和研究野外人工模拟降雨实验与自然降雨观测相结合的坡耕地水土保持监测方法。分别在5个坡改梯治理小流域内选址建设3个不同坡度20 m × 3 m的实验小区,历时三年进行了59场次模拟降雨实验和汛期158场次自然降雨观测,并分析水土流失治理效益。监测结果表明:坡度和降雨量对坡耕地土壤侵蚀强度影响显著,但降雨量的影响相对更大;模拟降雨实验梯地小区径流系数为坡地小区的39.8%,平均土壤侵蚀强度较坡地小区减小77.7%;自然降雨观测梯地小区径流系数为坡地小区的13.3%,平均土壤侵蚀强度较坡地小区减少90.0%。由此看来,模拟降雨实验和自然降雨观测两种途径的监测结果基本上是一致的,均表明坡改梯后减流减蚀效益显著。

Five small watershed of seriously soil and water loss were selected as case study. The superposition spray type rainfall simulation control system was used to explore artificial simulated rainfall experiment combined with observed rainfall of farmland soil and water conservation monitoring method. Respectively within 5 terrace management of small watershed in the three different slope location construction 20 m × 3 m’s experimental plot, the three-year 59 games simulated rainfall experiment and flood season over 158 natural rainfall observation, used to analyze the benefits of soil and water loss control. The monitoring results show that the slope and rainfall intensity of soil erosion of slope affect significantly, but the influence of the rainfall is relatively greater. Simulated rainfall experiment terrace land plot runoff coefficient of 39.8% of the slope area, average slope area decreases in the soil erosion intensity is 77.7%. Natural rainfall observation terrace land plot runoff coefficient of 13.3% of the slope area, average slope area to reduce in the soil erosion intensity is 90.0%. The simulated rainfall experiment and natural rainfall observation results are basically consistent, which shows that the benefit is remarkable after terrace flow and erosion reduction.






文章引用:
文朝菊. 云南坡耕地治理水土保持监测方法探索研究[J]. 水资源研究, 2017, 6(2): 187-195. https://doi.org/10.12677/JWRR.2017.62022

参考文献

[1] 袁勇, 高华端, 孙泉忠. 黔中喀斯特地区不同地类土壤侵蚀研究[J]. 中国水土保持, 2010(6): 50-51, 66. YUAN Yong, GAO Huaduan and SUN Quanzhong. Soil erosion of different land use of Karst area in central Guizhou. Soil and Water Conservation in China, 2010(6): 50-51, 66. (in Chinese)
[2] 杨芳, 王克勤, 延红卫. 尖山河流域不同植被类型坡面产流产沙量研究[J]. 林业调查规划, 2009, 34(1): 10-14. YANG Fang, WANG Keqin and YAN Hongwei. Study on runoffs and sediment yields of different vegetation types of Jianshanhe watershed. Forest Inventory and Planning, 2009, 34(1): 10-14. (in Chinese)
[3] 张喜旺, 周月敏, 李晓松, 等. 土壤侵蚀评价遥感研究进展[J]. 土壤通报, 2010, 41(4): 1010-1017. ZHANG Xiwang, ZHOU Yuemin, LI Xiaosong, et al. A review of remote sensing application in soil erosion assessment. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2010, 41(4): 1010-1017. (in Chinese)
[4] 张岩, 刘宪春, 李智广, 等. 利用侵蚀模型普查黄土高原土壤侵蚀状况[J]. 农业工程学报, 2012, 28(10): 165-171. ZHANG Yan, LIU Xianchun, LI Zhiguang, et al. Surveying soil erosion condition in Loess Plateau using soil erosion model. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2012, 28(10): 165-171. (in Chinese)
[5] 肖军仓, 罗定贵, 王忠忠. 基于SWAT模型的抚河流域土壤侵蚀模拟[J]. 水土保持研究, 2013, 20(1): 14-18. XIAO Juncang, LUO Dinggui and WANG Zhongzhong. Soil erosion simulation in Fuhe Basin based on swat model. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 2013, 20(1): 14-18. (in Chinese)
[6] 马瞳宇, 张晓萍, 孙艳萍, 等. 水蚀风蚀交错区典型流域景观格局变化对土壤侵蚀过程的影响[J]. 水土保持学报, 2012, 26(4): 43-48. MA Tongyu, ZHANG Xiaoping, SUN Yanping, et al. Influence of landscape pattern change to soil erosion process in water- wind erosion crisscross region, Loess Plateau. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2012, 26(4): 43-48. (in Chinese)
[7] 王全辉, 胡国庆, 董元杰, 等. 磁性示踪条件下坡面土壤侵蚀产流产沙及侵蚀空间分异特征[J]. 水土保持学报, 2012, 26(2): 21-23. WANG Quanhui, HU Guoqing, DONG Yuanji, et al. Runoff and sediment yield and spatial variation of soil erosion slope under magnetic tracing condition. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2012, 26(2): 21-23. (in Chinese)
[8] 胡国庆, 董元杰, 邱现奎, 等. 鲁中山区小流域坡面土壤侵蚀的磁性示踪法研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 2010, 24(5): 169-173. HU Guoqing, DONG Yuanjie, QIU Xiankui, et al. Use of magnetic tracers to study soil erosion process of small watershed in Luzhong Mountain Area. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2010, 24(5): 169-173. (in Chinese)
[9] 孙泉忠, 刘瑞禄, 陈菊艳, 等. 贵州省石漠化综合治理人工种草对土壤侵蚀的影响[J]. 水土保持学报, 2013, 27(4): 67-72. SUN Quanzhong, LIU Ruilu, CHEN Juyan, et al. Effect of planting grass on soil erosion in Karst demonstration areas of rocky desertification integrated rehabilitation in Guzhon Province. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2013, 27(4): 67-72. (in Chinese)
[10] 程琴娟, 蔡强国. 模拟降雨下黄土表土结皮的侵蚀响应[J]. 水土保持学报, 2013, 27(4): 73-77. CHENG Qinjuan, CAI Quoqiang. Responses of soil surface crusts on soil erosion in loess under simulated rainfalls. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2013, 27(4): 73-77. (in Chinese)
[11] 秦凤, 郑子成, 李廷轩, 等. 玉米季坡耕地地表糙度的变化特征及其对土壤侵蚀的影响[J]. 水土保持学报, 2013, 27(3): 18-22. QIN Feng, ZHENG Zicheng, LI Tingxuan, et al. Change of soil surface roughness and its effects on soil erosion in sloping cropland during maize growing season. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2013, 27(3): 18-22. (in Chinese)