AEP  >> Vol. 7 No. 4 (August 2017)

    我国严寒地区典型城市室内外颗粒物相关性研究
    Study on the Correlation between Indoor and Outdoor Particulate Matter of Typical Cities in Severe Cold Regions of China

  • 全文下载: PDF(2014KB) HTML   XML   PP.346-358   DOI: 10.12677/AEP.2017.74047  
  • 下载量: 831  浏览量: 2,701   国家自然科学基金支持

作者:  

王海峰,吕 阳,陈 滨,吴庭枫,刘 彤:大连理工大学土木工程学院,辽宁 大连;
魏山山:大象建筑设计有限公司,浙江 杭州;
张 雷,赵 琦:东北石油大学地球科学学院,黑龙江 大庆;
李 楠:辽宁省海洋水产科学研究院,辽宁 大连

关键词:
室内外颗粒物相关性自然通风渗透因子相关性分析暴露评价Indoor and Outdoor Particle Correlation Natural Ventilation Infiltration Coefficients Correlation Analysis Exposure Evaluation

摘要:

目前,室内颗粒物污染越来越受到社会的重视,而室外雾霾天气则会严重影响室内的空气质量。本文为研究严寒地区夏季室内外颗粒物浓度的相关性和影响因素,利用颗粒物在线监测仪在夏季对大庆地区四类建筑类型(办公室、教室、农村住宅和城市住宅)共110户进行了实测与分析。结果发现,夏季大庆地区整体空气质量较好。室内外颗粒物之间存在着明显的线性关系,渗透系数可用来表示它们相关性的大小。对于办公室和城市住宅,渗透系数为0.7214和0.7499。而对于教室和农村住宅,通风换气次数较高,渗透系数略高一些,0.9217和0.9019。因此,夏季以自然通风为主的建筑,大约有70%以上的室内颗粒物是来自于室外。而且室内颗粒物浓度还与室内外温湿度之间存在着显著的正相关性(p < 0.05),但不同类型建筑之间存在着明显的差别。对于O1类办公建筑建筑以及教室,外墙以玻璃为主,室内外温度的影响更大一些。对于其余建筑,以混凝土墙体结构为主,受相对湿度的影响较大。按照时间-活动模式分别求得每天的暴露水平,结果发现:对于城市人群,平均暴露量21.63 μg/m³。对于农村人群,平均暴露量为25.64 μg/m³。不同性别之间暴露潜在剂量由于呼吸强度的不同也存在差异,男性暴露的潜在剂量比女性高1.2倍。

At present, more and more attention has been paid to indoor particulate matter pollution, while outdoor fog and haze will seriously affect indoor air quality. In order to study the correlation and influencing factors of indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentration of severe cold areas in summer, a total of 110 households in four types of buildings (Offices, Classrooms, Rural houses and Urban houses) in Daqing area were measured and analysed with online monitors. The results show that the overall air quality of Daqing area in summer is good. There is a clear linear relationship between indoor and outdoor particles. The infiltration coefficient can be used to represent the degree of their correlation. For offices and urban dwellings, the infiltration coefficients are 0.7214 and 0.7499. Due to the air exchange rate higher, the classroom and rural housing show a slightly higher infiltration coefficient, 0.9217 and 0.9019. Therefore, about 70% of the indoor particulate matter is from the outside for natural ventilation-based buildings in summer. There is a significant positive correlation between indoor particulate matter concentration and indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity (p < 0.05); however, it is still various in different types of buildings. For O1 office buildings and classrooms, the external walls are glasses, hence indoor and outdoor temperature has greater impact on the indoor particulate matter concentration. While the rest of the building with concrete wall structure is mainly affected by the relative humidity. According to the time-activity model, the daily exposure level can be obtained. The results showed that the average exposure was 21.63 μg/m³ for the urban population. For rural people, the average exposure was 25.64 μg/m³. The potential dose of exposure between different sexes varies according to respiratory intensity, and the potential dose of male exposure is 1.2 times higher than that of female.

文章引用:
王海峰, 吕阳, 魏山山, 陈滨, 吴庭枫, 刘彤, 张雷, 赵琦, 李楠. 我国严寒地区典型城市室内外颗粒物相关性研究[J]. 环境保护前沿, 2017, 7(4): 346-358. https://doi.org/10.12677/AEP.2017.74047

参考文献

[1] Uthman, O.A. (2016) Global, Regional, and National Comparative Risk Assessment of 79 Behavioural, Environmental and Occupational, and Metabolic Risks or Clusters of Risks, 1990-2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Neurology, 388, 1659-1724.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8
[2] 刘慧琳, 陈志明, 周斌, 等. 南宁市夏季和冬季细颗粒物化学组分特征研究[J]. 环境科技, 2015, 28(4): 22-27.
[3] 李仰瑞, 赵云峰. PM2. 5对呼吸系统的影响[J]. 中华肺部疾病杂志(电子版), 2013, 6(4): 71-73.
[4] Dockery, D.W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X.P., et al. (1993) An Association between Air Pollution and Morality in Six United-States Cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 753-759.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312093292401
[5] Zhao, J., Bo, L., Gong, C., et al. (2015) Preliminary Study to Explore Gene-PM2.5 Interactive Effects on Respiratory System in Traffic Policemen. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 28, 971-983.
https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00370
[6] Tseng, E., Ho, W.C., Lin, M.H., et al. (2015) Chronic Exposure to Particulate Matter and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality: Cohort Study from Taiwan. BMC Public Health, 15, 936.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2272-6
[7] Cohen, A.J., Brauer, M., Burnett, R., et al. (2017) Estimates and 25-Year Trends of the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Air Pollution: An Analysis of Data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015. The Lancet.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6
[8] Klemm, R.J., Mason, R.M., Heilig, C.M., et al. (1996) Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles? Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 46, 927-965.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.1996.10467528
[9] Dockery, D.W. and Spengler, J.D. (1981) Indoor-Outdoor Relationships of Respirable Sulfates and Particles. Atmospheric Environment, 15, 335-343.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(81)90036-6
[10] Koutrakis, P., Briggs, S.L.K. and Leaderer, B.P. (1992) Source Appor-tionment of Indoor Aerosols in Suffolk and Onondaga Counties, New York. Environmental Science & Technology, 26, 521-527.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es00027a012
[11] Ozkaynak, H., Xue, J., Spengler, J., et al. (1995) Personal Exposure to Airborne Particles and Metals: Results from the Particle TEAM Study in Riverside, California. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 6, 57-78.
[12] 熊志明, 张国强, 彭建国, 等. 室内可吸入颗粒物污染研究现状[J]. 暖通空调, 2004, 34(4): 32-36.
[13] World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. WHO, Geneva.
[14] World Health Organization (2016) Ambient Air Pollution: A Global Assessment of Exposure and Burden of Disease. Ambient Air Pollution: A Global Assessment of Exposure and Burden of Disease. WHO, Geneva.
[15] Roberts, J.W., Budd, W.T., Rubyet, M.G., et al. (1992) Human Exposure to Pollutants in the Floor Dust of Homes and Offices. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 2,127-146.
[16] Lidia, M., He, C., Hitchins, J., et al. (2001) The Relationship between Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Particles in the Residential Environment. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3463-3473.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00097-8
[17] 赵彬, 陈玖玖, 李先庭. 室内颗粒物的来源、健康效应及分布运动研究进展[J]. 环境与健康, 2005, 22(1): 65-68.
[18] 周丹, 魏云慧. 大庆市空气质量分析及空气污染控制对策[J]. 大庆社会科学, 2005(2): 51-51.
[19] Wilson, W.E., Mage, D.T. and Grant, L.D. (2000) Estimating Separately Personal Exposure to Ambient and Nonambient Particulate Matter for Epidemiology and Risk Assessment: Why and How. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 50, 1167-1183.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2000.10464164
[20] Chen, C. and Zhao, B. (2011) Review of Relationship between Indoor and Outdoor Particles: I/O Ratio, Infiltration Factor and Penetration Factor. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 275-288.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.048
[21] Ott, W., Wallace, L. and Mage, D. (2000) Predicting Particulate (PM10) Personal Exposure Distributions Using a Random Component Superposition Statistical Model. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 50, 1390- 1406.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2000.10464169
[22] Kingham, S., Briggs, D., Elliott, P., et al. (2000) Spatial Variations in the Concentrations of Traffic-Related Pollutants in Indoor and Outdoor Air in Huddersfield, England. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 905-916.
[23] Özbay, B. (2012) Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Factors on SO2 and PM10 Concentrations with Statistical Approaches. CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water, 40, 571-577.
https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201100356
[24] Monn, C. (2001) Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants: A Review on Spatial Heterogeneity and Indoor/Out- door/Personal Exposure to Suspended Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 1-32.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00330-7
[25] 王顶. 大庆市PM10污染预测的研究[D]: [硕士学位论文]. 成都: 西南交通大学, 2011.
[26] MacNeill, M., Kearney, J., Wallace, L., et al. (2014) Quantifying the Contribution of Ambient and Indoor-Generated Fine Particles to Indoor Air in Residential Environments. Indoor Air, 24, 362-375.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12084
[27] Hystad, P.U., Setton, E.M., Allen, R.W., et al. (2009) Modeling Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration for Exposure Assessment. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 19, 570-579.
https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2008.45
[28] 黄虹. 广州市住宅室内外大气PM2.5的化学组成特征, 来源及暴露评价[D]: [博士学位论文]. 广州: 中山大学, 2005.
[29] 张振江, 赵若杰, 曹文文, 等. 天津市可吸入颗粒物及元素室内外相关性[J]. 中国环境科学, 2013, 33(2): 357- 364.
[30] 吴亚涛, 刘兆荣. 采暖季室内外细颗粒物关系的关键影响因素分析[J]. 北京大学学报(自然科学版), 2016, 52(5): 931-938.
[31] Elbayoumi, M., Ramli, N.A., Yusof, N.F.F.M., et al. (2014) Multivariate Methods for Indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5 Modelling in Naturally Ventilated Schools Buildings. Atmospheric Environment, 94, 11-21.
[32] Branis, M., Rezácová, P. and Domasová, M. (2005) The Effect of Outdoor Air and Indoor Human Activity on Mass Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a Classroom. Environmental Research, 99, 143-149.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2004.12.001
[33] Fromme, H., Twardella, D., Dietrich, S., Heitmann, D., Schierl, R., Liebl, B. and Rüden, H. (2007) Particulate Matter in the Indoor Air of Classrooms E Exploratory Results from Munich and Surrounding Area. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 854-866.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.053
[34] Milner, J.T., Dimitroulopoulou, C. and ApSimon, H.M. (2005) Indoor Concentrations in Buildings from Sources Outdoors.Technical Report. UNSPECIFIED.
[35] Ji, W. and Zhao, B. (2015) Contribution of Outdoor-Originating Particles, Indoor-Emitted Particles and Indoor Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) to Residential Indoor PM2.5 Concentration: A Model-Based Estimation. Building and Environment, 90, 196-205.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.04.006
[36] He, C., Morawska, L., Hitchins, J., et al. (2004) Contribution from Indoor Sources to Particle Number and Mass Concentrations in Residential Houses. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 3405-3415.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.03.027
[37] 付高平. 成都市微细颗粒物(PM2.5)形成机理及对人类健康危害研究[D]: [硕士学位论文]. 成都: 西南交通大学, 2014.
[38] 陶燕, 羊德容, 兰岚, 等. 兰州市空气污染对呼吸系统疾病入院人数的影响[J]. 中国环境科学, 2013, 33(1): 175- 180.
[39] 王贝贝, 段小丽, 蒋秋静, 等. 我国北方典型地区居民呼吸暴露参数研究[J]. 环境科学研究, 2010, 23(11): 1421- 1427.