# 山东地区差异化防雷研究Study on Differentiation Lightning Protection in Shandong

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Based on the influence of factors such as complicated geomorphology and obvious climatic differ-ences on lightning protection design in Shandong, this paper studies the differentiation lightning protection design of overhead-line in Shandong based on the improved electro-geometric model proposed by Eriksson, and summarizes the mathematical model suitable for Lightning Trip Rate calculation in Shandong.

1. 引言

2. 地区不同雷电活动影响

IEEE 1243-1997推荐地闪密度可以利用公式(1)来计算。

${N}_{g}=0.04{T}_{d}^{1.25}$ (1)

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}N={N}_{g}\frac{b+4{h}_{g}}{1000}×100,\left({U}_{n}<1000\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{kV}\right)\\ N={N}_{g}\frac{b+28{h}_{g}^{0.6}}{1000}×100,\left({U}_{n}>1000\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{kV}\right)\end{array}$ (2)

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{lg}P=-\frac{I}{C}\\ f\left(I\right)=\frac{\mathrm{ln}10}{C}{10}^{-\frac{I}{C}}\end{array}$ (3)

IEEE推荐的雷电流幅值分布函数的计算方法以及相应的雷电流幅值密度函数的计算方法如式(4)所示。

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}P=\frac{1}{1+{\left(\frac{I}{31}\right)}^{2.6}}\\ f\left(I\right)=\frac{2.6{I}^{1.6}}{{31}^{2.6}{\left[1+{\left(\frac{I}{31}\right)}^{2.6}\right]}^{2}}\end{array}$ (4)

Table 1. The discipline method is compared with the IEEE recommended formula

3. 反击跳闸率影响因素及其计算

3.1. 反击跳闸率的计算

${n}_{1}=N\left(1-{P}_{a}\right)g{P}_{1}\eta$ (5)

Table 2. Different terrain Striking Rate

3.2. 线路耐雷水平的计算

${I}_{1}=\frac{{u}_{50%}}{\left(1-k\right)\beta {R}_{i}+\left(\frac{{h}_{a}}{{h}_{t}}-k\right)\beta \frac{{L}_{t}}{{T}_{1}}+\left(1-\frac{{h}_{g}}{{h}_{c}}{k}_{0}\right)\frac{{h}_{c}}{{T}_{1}}}$ (6)

Table 3. Tower shunt coefficient

$\eta =\left(4.5{E}^{0.75}-14\right)×{10}^{-2}$ (7)

$E=\frac{{U}_{n}}{\sqrt{3}{l}_{i}}$ (8)

$E=\frac{{U}_{n}}{2{l}_{i}+{l}_{m}}$ (9)

Table 4. Corona correction factor for lightning strikes the top of the tower

3.3. 电磁环境对防雷设计的影响

${Z}_{ii}=\frac{{\alpha }_{ii}}{\nu }=60\mathrm{ln}\frac{2{h}_{i}}{{r}_{eq}}$ (10)

${Z}_{ij}=\frac{{\alpha }_{ij}}{\nu }=60\mathrm{ln}\frac{2{H}_{ij}}{{D}_{ij}}$ (11)

${Z}_{c}=\frac{{Z}_{0}}{\frac{{E}_{0}}{u}\left(1-\frac{6\sqrt{M}}{7}\right)+\frac{6\sqrt{M}}{7}\sqrt[6]{\frac{{E}_{0}}{u}}}$ (12)

${E}_{d0}=nr{E}_{c}\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{2h}{{r}_{eq}}\right){\left[1+\frac{r\left(n-1\right)}{A}\right]}^{-1}$ (13)

${E}_{c}=30m\delta \left(1+\frac{0.308}{\sqrt{\delta r}}\right)$ (14)

$A=\frac{d}{2\mathrm{sin}\frac{n}{\text{π}}}$ (15)

${r}_{eq}=\sqrt[n]{nr{A}^{n-1}}$ (16)

${E}_{b0}=\frac{3000m\left(1+\frac{0.03}{\sqrt{{r}_{b}}}\right)2{r}_{b}}{1+\frac{2{r}_{b}}{D}}\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{2{h}_{b}}{\sqrt{{r}_{b}D}}\right)$ (17)

${k}_{m-1,m}=-\frac{{Y}_{m1}+{Y}_{m2}+\cdots +{Y}_{mm}}{{Y}_{mm}}$ (18)

$Z=60\left(\mathrm{ln}\frac{\sqrt{2}ct}{r}-2\right)$ (19)

$Z=60\left(\mathrm{ln}\frac{2\sqrt{2}h}{r}-2\right)$ (20)

Figure 1. Multi-wave impedance model diagram

${Z}_{tk}=60\left(\mathrm{ln}\frac{{2}^{\frac{2}{3}}{h}_{k}}{{r}_{ek}}-2\right)$ (21)

${r}_{ek}={2}^{\frac{1}{8}}{\left({r}_{tk}^{\frac{1}{3}}{r}_{B}^{\frac{2}{3}}\right)}^{\frac{1}{4}}{\left({R}_{tk}^{\frac{1}{3}}{R}_{B}^{\frac{2}{3}}\right)}^{\frac{3}{4}}$ (22)

${Z}_{Lk}=9{Z}_{tk}$ (23)

4. 绕击率影响因素及其差异化计算

Eriksson提出的计算方法如公式(24)所示。

${R}_{c}=0.67{h}^{0.6}{I}^{0.74}$ (24)

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of conventional lightning strike model

${R}_{e}=\left(0.36+0.168\mathrm{ln}\left(43-h\right)\right){R}_{c}$ (25)

${R}_{e}=0.55{R}_{c}$ (26)

${D}_{c}\left(I\right)={r}_{c}\left(\mathrm{cos}{\theta }_{1}-\mathrm{cos}{\theta }_{2}\right)$ (27)

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}\text{SFFOR}=2{N}_{g}L{\int }_{I={I}_{c}}^{I={I}_{\mathrm{max}}}{D}_{C}\left(I\right)f\left(I\right)\text{d}I\\ \text{SFTR}=\text{SFFOR}×\eta \end{array}$ (28)

${I}_{c}=\frac{2×{U}_{50%}}{{Z}_{c}}$ (29)

$\stackrel{¯}{SC}=\sqrt{{L}^{2}+{\left({h}_{s}-{h}_{c}\right)}^{2}}$ (30)

${\theta }_{1}=\mathrm{arcsin}\left(\frac{{r}_{g}-{h}_{c}}{{r}_{c}}\right)$ (31)

${\theta }_{2}=\frac{\text{π}}{2}+\alpha -\mathrm{arccos}\left(\frac{{r}_{c}^{2}+{\left(\stackrel{¯}{SC}\right)}^{2}-{r}_{s}^{2}}{2{r}_{c}\stackrel{¯}{SC}}\right)$ (32)

$\alpha =\mathrm{arctan}\frac{L}{{h}_{s}-{h}_{c}}$ (33)

5. 结语

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