北京地区老年人的社会认知及其与心理健康的关系
Social Cognition and Its Relationship with Mental Health of the Elderly in Beijing
DOI: 10.12677/AP.2017.73040, PDF, HTML, XML, 下载: 1,911  浏览: 6,486  科研立项经费支持
作者: 徐 华, 史佳乐, 代小东:北京联合大学师范学院,北京
关键词: 社会认知心理健康北京老年人Social Cognition Mental Health Beijing The Elderly
摘要: 本研究采用老年人社会认知量表、总体幸福感量表、症状自评量表(简称SCL-90)、自编基本情况问卷为测量工具,随机选取北京市多个社区60岁以上的老人共296人(男144人,女152人)作为对象,结果发现,1) 老年人的社会态度最为良好,而社会知觉及社会归因相对较差;2) 老年人的年龄、退休时间与社会认知各个维度及总分相关均不显著,社会归因与人均住房面积呈显著正相关,人均住房面积越大,社会归因能力越低;3) 身体状况影响老年人社会认知,身体状况好的老年人其社会知觉、社会认知总体能力显著或边缘显著高于身体状况中等或较差的老人;4) 社区作用影响老年人社会认知,自评社区作用大的老年人其社会知觉、社会归因能力显著或边缘显著高于社区作用中等或小的老人;自评社区作用大的老年人其社会认知总体能力显著高于社区作用小的老年人;5) 通过相关和回归分析表明,社会归因、社会态度及社会认知总分与幸福感呈显著负相关,与症状自评总分呈显著正相关,社会认知各维度及总分得分越高,幸福感得分越低,症状自评总分越高,表明社会认知能力越低,就更不幸福、更多心理症状。其中,社会态度与总体社会认知能力能显著预测心理症状和幸福感。
Abstract: This study adopted Elderly Social Cognition Scale, General Well-Being Schedule (GWB), and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-designed questionnaire as measurement tools, and 296 elderly people over the age of 60 (male 144, female 152) were randomly selected from several communities in Beijing as participants. The results showed, 1) social attitude of the elderly was best, and social perception and social attribution were relatively poor; 2) the age of the elderly and retirement time were not significantly correlated with each dimension and total scores of social cognition; social attribution was significantly positively correlated with the average per capita living area, the greater the per capita housing area, the lower the ability of social attribution; 3) health condition influenced the elderly’s social cognition, social perception and social cognitive overall ability of the elderly with good physical condition were significantly or marginally better than those of people with medium or poor physical condition; 4) community evaluation influenced the elderly’s social cognition, social perception and social attribution of the elderly with good evaluation were significantly or marginally better than those of people with medium or poor evaluation, social cognitive overall ability of the elderly with good evaluation were significantly better than those of people with poor evaluation; 5) through correlation and regression analysis, social attribution, social attitude and social cognition total scores were significantly negatively correlated with GWB, and were significantly positively correlated with SCL-90, the higher each dimension and total scores of social cognition, the lower the GWB scores and the higher SCL-90 scores, demonstrating that the lower the social cognition ability was, the more the unhappiness and psychological symptoms were. Among them, social attitude and overall social cognitive ability could significantly predict well-being and psychological symptoms.
文章引用:徐华, 史佳乐, 代小东 (2017). 北京地区老年人的社会认知及其与心理健康的关系. 心理学进展, 7(3), 312-319. https://doi.org/10.12677/AP.2017.73040

参考文献

[1] 曹玥(2014). 空巢老人社会认知量表的编制. 本科学位论文, 北京: 北京联合大学.
[2] 国家统计局(2014). 2014年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201502/t20150226_685799.html
[3] 蒋天行(2014). 空巢老人社会认知的影响因素研究. 本科学位论文, 北京: 北京联合大学.
[4] 李德明, 陈天勇, 吴振云, 李贵芸(2005). 健康老龄化的基本要素及其影响因素分析. 中国老年学杂志, 25(9), 931-933.
[5] 孟宪锋(2010). 临床社会认知功能量表的初步编制及信度和效度检验. 硕士论文, 沈阳: 中国医科大学.
[6] 庞丽娟, 田瑞清(2002). 儿童社会认知发展的特点. 心理科学, 25(2), 144-147.
[7] 王沛, 林崇德(2003). 社会认知研究的基本趋向. 心理科学, 26, 536-537.
[8] 杨丽娟, 解恒革, 王鲁宁, 马腾霄, 王炜, 张晓红, 杨丽君(2004). 中老年人心理社会因素对认知功能影响的初步调查. 中国临床康复, 8(10), 1808-1810.
[9] 叶茂林(2013). 社会认知研究的新探索——评“社会认知心理学”. 心理研究, 6(4), 95-96.
[10] 赵丹, 余林(2016). 社会交往对老年人认知功能的影响. 心理科学进展, 24(1), 46-54.
[11] 钟毅平, 谭千保, 方柳(2006). 听障学生与正常学生社会认知能力的比较研究. 心理科学, 29(1), 73-75.
[12] 朱叶, 方菁, 张蓓, 罗英姿, 赵伟, 王湘(2014). 精神分裂症社会认知功能缺陷的功能影像研究. 中国临床心理学杂志, 22(2), 232-239.
[13] Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., & Roberts, D. L. (2006). The Functional Significance of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 44-63.
https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbl029
[14] Dodge, K. A. (1993). Social-Cognitive Mechanisms in the Development of Conduct Disorder and Depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 559-584.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.44.020193.003015
[15] Funder, D. C. (2001). Personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 197-221.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.197
[16] Pinkham, A. E., Penn, D. L., Perkins, D. O., & Lieberman, J. (2003). Implications for the Neural Basis of Social Cognition for the Study of Schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 815-824.
https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.815
[17] Smith, J., Fleeson, W., Geiselmann, B. et al. (1999). Sources of Well-Being in Very Old Age. In P. B. Baltes, & K. U. Mayer (Eds.), The Berlin Aging Studying from 70 to100 (pp. 451-471). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.