MP  >> Vol. 1 No. 1 (May 2011)

    非线性量子系统中由非线性Schrödinger方程描述的微观粒子的特性
    The Properties of Microscopic Particles Described by Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation in Nonlinear Quantum Systems

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作者:  

庞小峰:电子科技大学生命科学与技术学院

关键词:
非线性量子力学微观粒子
Quantum Mechanics; Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation; Wave-Corpuscle Duality; Localization

摘要:

原有量子力学的由Schrödinger方程不能很好地描述微观粒子的局域特性和波-粒二象性,因此,量子力学必须改进和发展。在非线性系统中我们考虑了粒子之间或它与背景场之间的非线性相互作用,于是必须用非线性Schrödinger方程去描述的微观粒子的状态。至此,微观粒子的状态和特征相对于线性系统发生了根本性的变化。在这种情况下不论外势场如何变化,但非线性Schrödinger方程都能给出具有波-粒二象特性的解,它由包络孤子和一个载波组成,有一个具有确定的位置的质心;同时,微观粒子此时也具有一个确定的质量,能量和动量,和它们遵守的质量,能量和动量守恒定律,在外场作用时粒子是稳定的,并满足经典运动方程和遵守哈密顿方程和拉格朗日方程。于是用非线性Schrödinger方程去描述的微观粒子具有一个明显的的局域特性和波-粒二象性, 从而彻底消除了原有量子力学存在近一个世纪的困难和问题。基于这些新的结果我们可建立起完整和系统的非线性量子力学理论体系,推动量子力学的发展。因此这一研究具有重要意义。

In original quantum mechanics the Schrödinger equation is, in essence, a wave equation, wherein the microscopic particles depicted have only a wave feature, and not a corpuscle nature. These descriptors do not agree only with the Broglie relation of wave-corpuscle duality, but also with experimental results and the traditional knowledge of particle concept. Meanwhile, the theory gives only some approximate solutions. Thus a series of contradictory representations and problems occur in quantum mechanics, which have re-sulted in durative disputations focused on the area of physics and have not led to any united conclusions until now. The only way to solve these problems and difficulties is to develop the quantum mechanics. We inves-tigate in detail wave-corpuscle duality of microscopic particles described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equa-tion in nonlinear quantum systems. Concretely speaking, we here study the properties of the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the stability of microscopic particles, invariance and conservation laws of motion of particles, the Hamiltonian principle of particle motion and corresponding Lagrangian and Hamilton equations, the classical rule of microscopic particle motion, and so on. Studied results show that the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation depicting microscopic particles is a soliton and have a wave-corpuscle duality, microscopic particles have always a mass center and possess determinant positions, sizes, mass, mo-mentum, energy and form, their mass, momentum and energy satisfy corresponding conservation laws, their dynamic states can be described by both nonlinear Schrödinger equation and classical Lagrangian and Ham-ilton equations, their motions obey the classical Newton-type law of motion. These properties indicate that the microscopic particles described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation have a corpuscle nature. However, the solutions of dynamic equation are some solitary waves which are accompanied by a carrier wave to propagate in space-time, and possess certain frequency and wave speed. Thus microscopic particles described by nonlinear quantum mechanics have also wave feature. Thus we can affirm that the microscopic particles depicted by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation have a perfect wave-corpuscle duality, which are in essence different from those in linear quantum mechanics. Based on these results we can establish a new nonlinear quantum mechanics, which can solve these difficulties and problems disputed for about a century in linear quantum mechanics.

文章引用:
庞小峰. 非线性量子系统中由非线性Schrödinger方程描述的微观粒子的特性[J]. 现代物理, 2011, 1(1): 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/mp.2011.11001

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