体育科学进展  >> Vol. 1 No. 2 (December 2013)

技击选手运动参与行为模式构建
Athletes’ Sports Participation Effect Model

DOI: 10.12677/APS.2013.12007, PDF, HTML, 下载: 2,194  浏览: 10,959 

作者: 许吉越:朝阳科技大学休闲事业管理系,台中;俆志辉, 王明月:朝阳科技大学通识中心,台中;黄竹杭:北京体育大学研究生院,北京

关键词: 结构方程模式运动动机运动涉入运动效益运动员满意度Construction Module; Sport Motivation; Sport Involvement; Sport Benefit; Athlete’s Satisfaction

摘要: 目的:本研究旨在探讨技击运动员的运动动机、运动涉入、运动效益及运动员满意度之关系,并试图建构运动参与行为因果模式。方法:以我国大专校院技击运动员为研究对象,共发出405份问卷,有效问卷382份回收率94.43%,所得数据以结构方程模式及Logistic回归分析进行统计分析。结果:一、运动动机、运动涉入、运动效益及运动满意度量表具有高的信效度,可用于对运动员参与行为特征的准确测量。二、技击选手运动动机与运动涉入、运动效益及运动员满意度呈直接且正向的影响。三、运动员运动行为参与的模式符合运动动机、运动涉入、运动效益及运动员满意度之四因素交互模型,整体运动参与行为模式对运动员的表现具有帮助。结论:建议举办优异运动名人说明会、运动健康讲座与媒体广告营销活动,以扩大运动员持续运动参与行为动机及涉入程度;寻求企业资源结合完善运动整体环境、设备、就业资源,以提升运动效益和运动员满意程度,并推动政府订定保障运动员及运动相关法规的具体做法等策略,对推展运动员的参与行为有所帮助。
Abstract: Purpose: This study is to investigate the relationship among Taiwan athletes’ sport motivation, sport involvement, sport benefit, and athletes’ satisfaction, and to construct a cause-and-effect module of athletes’ participation. Method: The samples were Taiwan College athletes, a total of 405 questionnaires were deployed, and 382 of them were returned effectively (94.43%). The data were analyzed by Independent Construction and Logistic Linear Regression. Results: Which indicated that first, sport motivation, sport involvement, sport benefit, and athletes’ satisfaction had higher efficiency, and they could be used to examine athletes’ behavior. Second, there were significant differences among athletes’ satisfaction, involvement, and sport effectiveness. Third, the participation module of Taiwan athletes fit the module of four factors’ reciprocation of sport satisfaction, sport involvement, sport efficiency, and sport satisfaction. Through sport involvement and motivation, athletes’ satisfaction could be influenced. Conclusion: By holding famous athletes’ seminars, media broadcasting, athletes can receive more sport effectiveness. Besides, developing well-designed policies for athletes, seeking sponsorship from industries, and exploring government’s support would be helpful to improve athletes’ participation.

文章引用: 许吉越, 俆志辉, 黄竹杭, 王明月. 技击选手运动参与行为模式构建[J]. 体育科学进展, 2013, 1(2): 32-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/APS.2013.12007

参考文献

[1] 叶伟 (2008) 我国徒手格斗项目(散打)优秀男子运动员何新竞技能力评价体系研究.北京体育大学, 北京.
[2] llerand, R.J. and Losier G.F. (1999) An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 142-169.
[3] Gould, D. (1982) Sport psychology in the 1980’s: Status direc- tion and challenge in education in youth sports research. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 203-218.
[4] Driver, P.J. and Brown, G.L. (1975) Benefits of leisure. Venture Publishing, State College, 1-5.
[5] 卢俊宏 (1994) 运动心理学.师大书苑, 台北.
[6] Gould, D. and Petlichkoff, K. (1988) Anexploratory of strategies used by elite coaches to enhance self-efficacy in athletes. Jour- nal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 128-140.
[7] Iwasaki, Y. (2003) The impact of Leisure coping mechanisms. Leisure Science, 25, 183-206.
[8] 毛国楠 (1997) 成绩回馈方式对不同能力水平国中生数学科的学习动机、学习策略、学习态度与学业成就之影响. 师范大学教育心理学报, 29, 117-136.
[9] Wiley, C.G., Shaw, S.M. and Haviz, M.E. (2000) Men’s and women’s involvement in sports: An examination of the gendered aspects of leisure involvement. Leisure Sciences, 22, 19-31.
[10] Bloch, P.H. (1990) Featured address. The 1990 Symposium on Leisure Research.
[11] 高俊雄 (1996) 休闲概念面面观. 国立体育学院论丛, 6, 69- 78.
[12] Chang, L.H. (2006) Study on bank employees’ job stress, leisure coping, and physical & mental health. Asian Journal of Man- agement and Humanity Science, 1, 161-174.
[13] Driver, B.L., Brown, P.J. and Peterson, G.L. (1991) Research on leisure benefits: An introduction to this volume. In: Driver, B.L., Brown, P.J. and Peterson, G.L., Eds., Benefits of Leisure, Venture Publishing, Inc., State College, 3-12.
[14] Mannel, R.C. and Stynes, D.J. (1991) A retrospective: The bene- fits of leisure. In: Driver, B.L., Brown, P.J. and Peterson, G.L., Eds., Benefits of Leisure, Venture Publishing, Stage College, 461- 473.
[15] Godbey, G. (1994) Leisure studies and services: Overview. Sun- ders, Philadelphia.
[16] Vallerand, R.J. and Losier, G.F. (1999) An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 142-169.
[17] Brown, S. and Macdonald, D. (2008) Masculinites inf physical recreation: The production of masculinist discourse in vocational education. Sport Education and Society, 13, 19-37.
[18] 吴永发 (2006) 路跑运动参与者持续涉入、休闲效益与幸褔感之研究. 硕士论文, 国立体育学院体育推广学系, 桃园.
[19] 杨原芳 (2004) 内在休闲动机、认真型休闲特性与最适体验关系之研究: 以高尔夫球运动为例. 硕士论文, 中国文化大学观光事业管理研究所, 台北市.
[20] 许吉越 (2003) 柔道选手目标取向、身体自我概念、运动动机与运动表现之相关研究. 鑫健出版社, 台中.
[21] Chelladurai, P. and Riemer, H.A. (1997) A classification of Aathlete satisfaction. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 151.
[22] Chelladurai, P. (1984) Discrepancy between preferences and perceptions of leadership behavior and satisfaction of athletic in varying sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 27-41.
[23] Hills, P., Argyle, M. and Reeves, R. (2000) Individual differ- ences in leisure satisfactions: An investigation of four theories of leisure motivation. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 763-779.
[24] McAuley, S. (2003) Self-efficacy, perceptions of success, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Journal of Applies Social Psy- chology, 21, 139-155.
[25] Weissinger, E. and Bandaios, C.D. (1995) Effects of boredom on self-reported health. Society and Leisure, 18, 21-32.
[26] 黄世明, 傅建三, 傅嘉辉 (2007) 私立美术馆观众休闲动机与休闲满意度之研究-以朱铭与鸿禧美术馆为例. 艺术学报(革新版), 80, 185-203.
[27] Pelletier, E.L., Vallerand, R.J., Tuson, L.G. and Blais, R.M. (1995) Motivation and education: The self-determination per- spective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.
[28] Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R. and Bacon, J. (2003) An ex- amination of the relationship between leisure activity involve- ment and place attachment among hikers along the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Leisure Research, 35, 249-273.
[29] Kyle, G. and Mowen, A.J. (2005) An examination of the leisure involvement-agency commitment relationship. Journal of Leisure Research, 27, 342-363.
[30] Manning, R.A. and Bacon, D.A. (2004) Diversity in a demor- cracy: Expanding the recreation opportunity spectrum. Leisure Science, 7, 377-399.
[31] Deci, E.L. (1997) Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychol- ogy, 18, 105-115.
[32] 高俊雄 (2008) 運動休閒管理. 華杏出版股份有限公司, 台北市.
[33] Iwasaki, Y. and Havitz, M.E. (2004) Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment, and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36, 45-72.
[34] 陈文宗 (2005) 我国高级中等学校技艺竞赛与竞技运动教练领导风格及选手满意度、团队凝聚力与团队目标达成度之研究. 博士论文, 彰化师大工业教育与技术学系, 彰化市.
[35] 许吉越 (2008) 柔道选手情绪智力、身体自我概念与运动员满意度间关系之探讨: 结构性模式之构建与台湾之例证. 鑫健出版社, 台中县.
[36] 王俊明 (2002) 平均数与标准差在体育运动上的应用. 中华体育, 61, 116-123.
[37] 邱皓政 (2002) 量化研究与统计分析. 五南出版社, 台北市.
[38] Nunnally, J.C. (1978) Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[39] Bollen, K.A. (1989) A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 17, 303-316.
[40] Ajen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50, 179-211.
[41] 高三福, 谢明辉 (2003) 大学生健身运动行为研究: 运动益处与障碍因素关系之探讨. 台湾运动心理学报, 2, 1-11.
[42] 陈肇芳 (2007) 大学校院学生休闲运动参与、涉入与满意度关系之研究. 硕士论文, 嘉义大学体育与健康休闲研究所, 嘉义县.
[43] Mullin, B.J., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W.A. (1993) Sport marketing. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign.
[44] Siegenthaler, K.L. and Lam, T.C. (1992) Commitment and ego- involvement in recreational tennis. Leisure Sciences, 14, 303- 315.
[45] 张少熙 (2003) 台湾中学教师参与休闲运动行为模式之研究. 博士论文, 国立台湾师范大学体育学系, 台北市.
[46] 徐新胜 (2007) 冲浪活动参与者之休闲动机、涉入程度与休闲效益关系之研究. 硕士论文, 国立中正大学运动与休闲教育所, 嘉义县.
[47] Weiss, M.R. and Friedrichs, T.S. (1986) Children’s self-per- ceptions and sources of physical competence information: A cluster analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 52-70.
[48] 虑心炎 (2003) 舞蹈休闲活动参与历程之研究. 硕士论文, 台湾师范大学体育研究所, 台北市.
[49] 王明月 (2010) 桌球教练领导行为与组织气氛、团队凝聚力、运动满意度之结构模式. 大专体育学刊, 12, 53-64.
[50] 吴国辉 (2000) 柔道教练领导行为、选手知觉动机气候及满意度之相关研究. 硕士论文, 国立体育学院教练研究所, 桃园县.