AP  >> Vol. 4 No. 11&122.asp; (March 2014)

    The Phenomenon and Mechanisms of the Distractor Previewing Effect

  • 全文下载: PDF(486KB) HTML    PP.195-201   DOI: 10.12677/AP.2014.42030  
  • 下载量: 1,972  浏览量: 10,712   科研立项经费支持


牟兵兵,李 顺:清华大学社科学院心理系,北京

干扰项预习效应注意抑制视觉搜索试次间效应Distractor Previewing Effect (DPE); Attention Inhibition; Visual Search; Inter-Trial Effect


干扰项预习效应(Distractor Previewing Effect)是视觉搜索实验中出现的一种试次间效应。实验任务要求被试在屏幕上显示的一组刺激中找到一个与干扰项颜色不同的靶子,判断它的形状并做出相应的反应。实验中混合呈现有靶子和无靶子的试次。如果在一个无靶子的试次后呈现一个有靶子的试次,而且靶子颜色和之前无靶子试次中的刺激颜色一样,被试的反应会比有靶子试次中干扰项的颜色和之前无靶子试次中的刺激颜色一样时慢。行为实验、眼动实验、事件相关电位实验的结果均显示,这种试次间效应是一种注意现象,反映了注意的抑制。本文介绍干扰项预习效应的现象并将其与相关现象进行比较,探讨它的内在机制和未来的研究方向。

The Distractor Previewing Effect is an inter-trial effect in visual search. In a visual search task, participants are asked to find a color oddball among distractors and then to identify its shape. Their responses are slower when the target in the current target-present trial has the same color as the items in the preceding target-absent trial than when the color of the current distractors does so. This inter-trial effect is not due to response inhibition, but reflects attention inhibition from one trial to the next. This paper introduces the phenomenon of the DPE, compares it to other inter-trial effects in visual search, and discusses its underlying mechanisms and future research directions.

牟兵兵, 李顺. 干扰项预习效应的现象与机制[J]. 心理学进展, 2014, 4(11&12): 195-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/AP.2014.42030


[1] Ariga, A., & Kawahara, J. (2004). The perceptual and cognitive distractor-previewing effect. Journal of Vision, 4, 891-903.
[2] Bravo, M.J., & Nakayama, K. (1992). The role of attention indifferent visual-search tasks. Perception and Psychophysics, 51, 465-472.
[3] Caddigan, E. & Lieras, A. (2010). Saccadic repulsion in pop-out search: How a target’s dodgy history can push the eyes away from it. Journal of Vision, 10, 1-9.
[4] Fox, E. (1995). Negative priming from ig-nored distractors in visual selection: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 145-173.
[5] Gehring, W.J., Gratton, G., Coles, M.G., & Donchin, E. (1992). Probability effects on stimulus evaluation and response processes. Journal of Ex-perimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 198-205.
[6] Goolsby, B.A., Grabowecky, M., & Su-zuki, S. (2005). Adaptive modulation of color salience contingent upon global form coding and task relevance. Vision Re-search, 45, 901-930.
[7] Humphrey, G.W, Watson, D.G., & Jolicaur, P. (2002). Fractionating the preview benefit in search: Dual-task decomposition of visual marking by timing and modality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 640-660.
[8] Itti, L., & Koch, C. (2001). Computational modelling of visual attention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 194-203.
[9] Jolicœur, P., Brisson, B., & Robitaille, N. (2008). Dissociation of the N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity in a choice response task. Brain research, 1215, 160-172.
[10] Levinthal, B.R., & Lleras, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of attention to features is modulated by task relevance. Journal of Vision, 8, 1-15.
[11] Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., & Levinthal, B.R. (2009). Past rejections lead to future misses: Selection-related inhibition produces blink-like misses of future (easily detectable) events. Journal of Vision, 9, 1-12.
[12] Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., Wan, X.I., & Ariga, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of focused attention in pop-out search. Perception & Psychophysics, 70, 114-131.
[13] Lleras, A., Levinthal, B.R., & Kawahara, J. (2009). The remains of the trial: Goal-determined inter-trial suppression of selective attention. In N. Srinivasan (Ed.), Attention: Progress in Brain Research, 176, 195-213.
[14] Luck, S.J. (2005). An introduction to the event-related potential technique (cognitive neuroscience) (pp. 50-72). Cambridge: MIT Press.
[15] Maljkovic, V., & Nakayama, K. (1994). Priming of pop-out: I. Role of features. Memory and Cognition, 22, 657-672.
[16] Posner, M.I., & Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of visual orienting. Attention and Performance X: Control of Language Processes, 32, 531-556.
[17] Shin, E., Wan, X.I., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., & Lleras, A. (2008). Electrophysiological evidence of feature-based inhibition of focused attention across consecutive trials. Psychophysiology, 45, 804-811.
[18] Wan, X., & Lleras, A. (2010). The effect of feature discriminability on the inter-trial inhibition of focused attention. Visual Cognition, 18, 920-944.
[19] Wan, X., Tian, L., & Lleras, A (2013). Age-related differences in the distractor previewing effect with schematic faces of emotions. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, in Press.
[20] Wan, X., Voss, M., & Lleras, A. (2011). Age-related effects in inter-trial inhibition of attention. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 1, 1-15.