MP  >> Vol. 6 No. 4 (July 2016)

作者:  

余子山:徐州市农委,江苏 徐州

关键词:
固体热运动统计内能热容量Solid Thermal Motion Statistics Intrinsic Energy Thermal Capacity

摘要:

尽管德拜T3定律在低温与实验符合很好,但容易证明,德拜内能显著偏离固体的内能规律,缺乏科学性。本文重新研究固体统计规律,创建一个新的固体统计模型,获得了若干原创性的认识,特别是低温领域创新性尤为明显。论文认为,原子质量、热运动最大幅度和温度,对原子热运动的能级范围、能态密度、能态总数、原子的分布等都有重要的影响。在低温条件下,原子热运动能量范围很窄小,最高能级EU < kT,可能的状态数量不多,热容量Cv与温度T成正比;势能对态密度、态总数、热容量等物理量的影响比动能的影响更加显著等。在高温条件下,除了研究固体的热容量等基本问题之外,定义了有效体积新概念,研究原子质心热运动空间占固体体积的比例问题等。

The conclusions of the existing statistical models, such as Debye model and Einstein model, lack of scientificity for departure from the solid intrinsic energy laws badly. The statistical laws of solids are re-studied and a new model is founded. Some original viewpoints, especially in low temperatures, are acquired. It is considered that atomic mass and temperature affect greatly on the scopes of energy levels, state density function, state number and atoms distribution etc. In low temperatures, the energy scope is very narrow; the highest energy level EU is smaller than kT; possible state number is few; thermal capacity is in (direct) proportion to temperature. And the potential energy’s affections on scope of energy levels, state density function, state number, and thermal capacity are more notable than the kinetic energy’s affections. In high temperatures, the ratio of the effective volume of atomic nucleus motioning, a new concept defined, to the solid volume is researched. Besides, the basic problems, such as thermal capacity, are studied.

文章引用:
余子山. 固体统计新模型[J]. 现代物理, 2016, 6(4): 148-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/MP.2016.64014