OJNS  >> Vol. 4 No. 3 (August 2016)

    The Mental Mechanism of Dialectical Thinking Influencing Emotional Information Memory

  • 全文下载: PDF(548KB) HTML   XML   PP.268-275   DOI: 10.12677/OJNS.2016.43032  
  • 下载量: 954  浏览量: 1,929   国家科技经费支持


孙俊才,高增明,石 荣:曲阜师范大学,山东 曲阜

辨证思维定向遗忘来源记忆编码抑制Dialectical Thinking Directed Forgetting Source Memory Encoding Inhibition


辩证思维是中国文化中处理情绪信息的重要智慧,为了进一步考察辩证思维对情绪信息记忆的影响,本研究采用单字法定向遗忘范式,测量三种实验条件下情绪词的定向遗忘量和来源记忆准确性。结果发现辨证思维:1) 改变对情绪性质和强度的评估;2) 提高负性词忘记项目的记忆,以及正性词和负性词来源记忆的准确性;3) 但没有改变情绪词的定向遗忘效应。这表明:1) 辨证思维可通过提高情绪信息的安全性增加信息编码的准确性,促进情绪事件的意义建构;2) 来源记忆编码与提取要求的不一致,即忘记任务指令在提取阶段还可能发挥抑制作用,使得定向遗忘效应持续存在。

Dialectical thinking is one of the important wisdom of Chinese culture in processing emotional information. In order to further investigate the influence of dialectical thinking on emotional information memory, we used word-directed forgetting paradigm to measure the amount of directional forgetting and the accuracy of source memory in three kinds of experimental conditions. Results show that: 1) dialectical thinking can significantly change the nature and intensity of emotion of events represented by emotional words; 2) dialectical thinking can improve the memory of forgetting instruction of negative words; 3) but dialectical thinking doesn't change the directed forgetting effect of emotional words. Those indicate that: 1) dialectical thinking can improve accuracy of information encoding through increasing safety of emotional information, then promoting the construction of the meaning of emotional events; 2) the inconsistency between the source memory encoding and retrieval requirements makes the directed forgetting effect persist, namely forgetting instruction still plays a role in the recall phase.

孙俊才, 高增明, 石荣. 辨证思维影响情绪信息记忆的心理机制[J]. 自然科学, 2016, 4(3): 268-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/OJNS.2016.43032


[1] 蒙培元. 情感与理性[M]. 北京: 中国人民大学出版社, 2009: 26-28.
[2] 刘书清, 彭凯平, 刘冠民, 方平, 林卓, 李迪斯. 辩证情绪: 研究方法及展望[J]. 心理学探新, 2013, 33(1): 7-14.
[3] Miyamoto, Y. and Ryff, C.D. (2011) Cultural Differences in the Dialectical and Non-Dialectical Emotional Styles and Their Implications for Health. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 22-39.
[4] Spencer-Rodgers, J., Williams, M.J. and Peng, K. (2010) Cultural Differences in Expectations of Change and Tolerance for Contradiction: A Decade of Empirical Research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 296-312.
[5] Kensinger, E.A. (2009) Remembering the Details: Effects of Emotion. Emotion Review, 1, 99-113.
[6] Dudai, Y. (2006) Reconsolidation: The Advantage of Being Refocused. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 174- 178.
[7] Blaney, P.H. (2010) Affect and Memory: A Review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 229-246.
[8] Nader, K. and Einarsson, E.Ö. (2010) Memory Reconsolidation: An Update. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1191, 27-41.
[9] Nader, K. and Hardt, O. (2009) A Single Standard for Memory: The Case for Reconsolidation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 224-234.
[10] Tronson, N.C. and Taylor, J.R. (2007) Molecular Mechanisms of Memory Reconsolidation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 262-275.
[11] Besnard, A. (2012) A Model of Hippocampal Competition between New Learning and Memory Updating. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 3281-3283.
[12] Osan, R., Tort, A.B. and Amaral, O.B. (2011) A Mismatch-Based Model for Memory Reconsolidation and Extinction in Attractor Networks. PLoS One, 6, e23113.
[13] Kashdan, T.B. and Rottenberg, J. (2010) Psychological Flexibility as a Fundamental Aspect of Health. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 865-878.
[14] Schmidt, S., Tinti, C., Levine, L.J. and Testa, S. (2010) Appraisals, Emotions and Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Approach. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 63-72.
[15] Basden, B.H. and Basden, D.R. (1998) Directed Forgetting: A Contrast of Methods and Interpretations. In: Golding, J.M. and MacLeod, C.M., Eds., Intentional Forgetting: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, 39-172.
[16] Lee, Y.S., Lee, H.M. and Fawcett, J.M. (2013) Intentional Forgetting Reduces Color-Naming Interference: Evidence from Item-Method Directed Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 220-236.
[17] 慕德芳, 宋耀武, 陈英和. 定向遗忘中提取抑制的机制: 成功提取引起抑制[J]. 心理学报, 2009, 41(1): 26-34.
[18] Storm, B.C. and Nestojko, J.F. (2010) Successful Inhibition, Unsuccessful Retrieval: Manipulating Time and Success during Retrieval Practice. Memory, 18, 99-114.
[19] Verde, M.F. (2013) Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in Recall: Competitor Interference Revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1433-1448.
[20] Hanczakowski, M. and Mazzoni, G. (2013) Contextual Match and Cue-Independence of Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: Testing the Prediction of the Model by Norman, Newman, and Detre (2007). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 953-958.
[21] 王一牛, 周立明, 罗跃嘉. 汉语情感词系统的初步编制及评定[J]. 中国心理卫生杂志, 2008, 22(8): 608-612.
[22] Högberg, G., Nardo, D., Hällström, T. and Pagani, M. (2011) Affective Psychotherapy in Post-Traumatic Reactions Guided by Affective Neuroscience: Memory Reconsolidation and Play. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 4, 87-96.
[23] 黄宇霞, 罗跃嘉. 负性情绪刺激是否总是优先得到加工: ERP研究[J]. 心理学报, 2009, 41(9): 822-831.
[24] 王敬欣, 贾丽萍, 白学军, 罗跃嘉. 返回抑制过程中情绪面孔加工优先: ERPs研究[J]. 心理学报, 3013, 45(1): 1-10.
[25] Chao, H. (2010) Inhibition of Return to Negative Emotion: Evidence from an Emotional Expression Detection Task. Emotion, 10, 272-277.
[26] Baddeley, A. (2013) Working Memory and Emotion: Ruminations on a Theory of Depression. Review of General Psychology, 17, 20-27.
[27] Wichert, S., Wolf, O.T. and Schwabe, L. (2013) Updating of Episodic Memories Depends on the Strength of New Learning after Memory Reactivation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127, 331-338.
[28] Mulji, R. and Bodner, G.E. (2010) Wiping out Memories: New Support for a Mental Context Change Account of Directed Forgetting. Memory, 18, 763-773.
[29] Wyland, C.L. and Forgas, J.P. (2007) On Bad Mood and White Bears: The Effects of Mood State on Ability to Suppress Unwanted Thoughts. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 1513-1524.
[30] Kenny, L.M. and Bryant, R.A. (2013) Retrieval Inhibition in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5, 35-42.
[31] Greenberg, B.M., Khatri, B.O. and Kramer, J.F. (2010) Current and Emerging Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics. Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology, 16, 58-77.
[32] Boritz, T.Z., Angus, L., Monette, G., Hollis-Walker, L. and Warwar, S. (2011) Narrative and Emotion Integration in Psychotherapy: Investigating the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory Specificity and Expressed Emotional Arousal in Brief Emotion-Focused and Client-Centred Treatments of Depression. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 16- 22.
[33] Greenberg, L.S. (2012) Emotions, the Great Captains of Our Lives: Their Role in the Process of Change in Psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 67, 697-707.