AP  >> Vol. 6 No. 11 (November 2016)

    间接互惠机制促进合作进化的理论评述
    Indirect Reciprocity Mechanism Promotes the Evolution of Cooperation

  • 全文下载: PDF(867KB) HTML   XML   PP.1183-1191   DOI: 10.12677/AP.2016.611149  
  • 下载量: 786  浏览量: 1,001  

作者:  

魏 纯:天津师范大学,天津 ;
戴斌荣:盐城师范学院,江苏 盐城

关键词:
间接互惠合作名誉机制形象计分策略名声策略信息评估Indirect Reciprocity Cooperation Reputation Mechanism Image Scoring Strategy Standing Strategy Information Assessment

摘要:

动物和人类世界存在广泛的合作现象,这些现象很难用物竞天择,适者生存的进化观点解释。1986年Alexander提出间接互惠模型解释大规模的合作现象,基于该模型下的名誉机制、形象计分策略、名声策略等在解释合作上都具有进化稳定性。在对信息的依赖上,间接互惠的研究从对个体信息可被完全观察,开始转向信息有限和不完整观察的领域。随着网络科技和新媒体等的不断发展,信息背景变得更为复杂,信息量更加庞大,信息渠道更为广泛,同时信息真实性却存在风险。因此,间接互惠的名誉机制对合作的解释力度需考虑新的信息背景,此外本土化研究和跨学科间的合作研究也尤为重要。

There is a wide range of cooperation between animal and human society, which is difficult to explain in the perspective of natural selection and survival of the fittest evolutionary. In 1986, Alexander proposed the concept of indirect reciprocity to explain the large-scale cooperation phenomenon. Thence, researchers have investigated various strategies, such as the reputation mechanism, the image scoring strategy and the standing strategy based on the indirect reciprocity theory. In reliance on information, the study of indirect reciprocity started from the transparent individual information, turning to the limited information and incomplete observation research areas now. With the development of Internet and new media, there are some new characteristics of in-formation: The amount of information is huge, the channels are more widely, the authenticity of information is with potential risk and the background of information is more complex. Therefore, when we use the model of reputation and indirect reciprocity to explain the cooperation, we should consider the new background of information. Meanwhile, the local studies and researches across disciplines are also very important.

文章引用:
魏纯, 戴斌荣 (2016). 间接互惠机制促进合作进化的理论评述. 心理学进展, 6(11), 1183-1191. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/AP.2016.611149

参考文献

[1] 杜月(2007). 进化视角下的间接互惠行为——评《道德体系生物学》及其开启的间接互惠行为研究. 社会学研究, 3, 209-225.
[2] 黄璜(2011). 合作进化模型综述. 北京大学学报: 自然科学版, 47(1), 185-192.
[3] 刘国芳, 辛自强(2011). 间接互惠中的声誉机制印象、名声、标签及其传递. 心理科学进展, 18(2), 233-242.
[4] 肖凤秋, 郑志伟, 陈英和(2014). 亲社会行为产生机制的理论综述. 心理科学, 37(5), 1263-1270.
[5] 杨雅茹, 陈博(2014). 亲缘利他、互惠利他、强制利他及合作机制的演化. 制度经济学研究, 2.
[6] Alexander, R. (1987). The Biology of moral Sys-tems.. The Biology of Moral Systems. A. de Gruyter. 1988: 49-92.
[7] Alexander, R. D. (1986). Ostacism and Indirect Reciprocity the Reproductive Significance of Humor. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7, 253-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(86)90052-X
[8] Aoki, K. (1984). A Quantitative Genetic Model of Reciprocal Altruism: A Condition for Kin or Group Selection to Prevail. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 80, 4065-8.
[9] Axelrod, R. (1980). Effective Choice in the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24, 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200278002400301
[10] Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The Evolution of Cooperation. Science, 211, 1390-1396. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7466396
[11] Baddeley, A. D. (1974). Working Memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, 47-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60452-1
[12] Bolton, G. E., & Ockenfels, A. (2000). ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition. American Economic Review, 90, 166-193. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.90.1.166
[13] Bolton, G. E., Katok, E., & Ockenfels, A. (2005). Cooperation among Strangers with Limited Information about Reputation. Journal of Public Economics, 89, 1457-1468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.03.008
[14] Boyd, R., & Lorberbaum, J. P. (1987). No Pure Strategy Is Evolutionarily Stable in the Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Nature, 327, 58-59. https://doi.org/10.1038/327058a0
[15] Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1988). The Evolution of Reciprocity in Sizable Groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 132, 337-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(88)80219-4
[16] Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1989). The Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity. Social Networks, 11, 213-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8733(89)90003-8
[17] Brown, J. S., Sanderson, M. J., & Michod, R. E. (1982). Evolution of Social Behavior by Reciprocation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 99, 319-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(82)90008-X
[18] Fehr, E., & Schmidt, K. M. (1999). A Theory of Fairness, Competi-tion, and Cooperation. Quarterly journal of Economics, 114, 817-868. https://doi.org/10.1162/003355399556151
[19] Leimar, O., & Hammerstein, P. (2001). Evolution of Cooperation through Indirect Reciprocity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 268, 745-753. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.1573
[20] Milnski, M., Semmann, D., Bakker, T. C. M., & Krambeck, H.-J. (2001). Cooperation through Indirect Reciprocity Image Scoring or Standing Strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 268, 2495-2501. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1809
[21] Nakamura, M., & Masuda, N. (2011). Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation. PLoS Computational Biology, 7, e1002113. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002113
[22] Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (1998a). Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity by Image Scoring. Nature, 393, 573-577. https://doi.org/10.1038/31225
[23] Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (1998b). The Dynamics of Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 194, 561-574. https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.1998.0775
[24] Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (2005). Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity. Nature, 437, 1291-1298. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04131
[25] Ohtsuki, H., & Iwasa, Y. (2004). How Should We Define Good-ness?—Reputation Dynamics in Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 231, 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.06.005
[26] Ohtsuki, H., & Iwasa, Y. (2006). The Leading Eight: Social Norms That Can Maintain Cooperation by Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 239, 435-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.08.008
[27] Olejarz, J., Ghang, W., & Nowak, M. (2015). Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information. Games, 6, 438-457. https://doi.org/10.3390/g6040438
[28] Pacheco, J. M., Santos, F. C., & Chalub, F. A. (2006). Stern-Judging: A Simple, Successful Norm Which Promotes Cooperation under In-direct Reciprocity. PLoS Computational Biology, 2, e178. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020178
[29] Peck, J. R., & Feldman, M. W. (1985). The Evolution of Helping Behavior in Large, Randomly Mixed Populations. American Naturalist, 127, 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1086/284479
[30] Smith, A. (1790). The Theory of Moral Sentiments (6th ed.). London: A. Millar.
[31] Suzuki, S., & Kimura, H. (2013). Indirect Reciprocity Is Sensitive to Costs of Information Transfer. Scientific Reports, 3, Article Number: 1435. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01435
[32] Takahashi, N., & Mashima, R. (2006). The Importance of Subjectivity in Perceptual Errors on the Emergence of Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 243, 418-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.05.014
[33] Trivers, R. L. (1971). The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. The University of Chicago Press, 46, 35-57. https://doi.org/10.1086/406755
[34] Uchida, S. (2010). Effect of Private Information on Indirect Reciprocity. Physical Review E, 82, Article ID: 036111. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036111
[35] Uchida, S., & Sasaki, T. (2013). Effect of Assessment Error and Private Information on Stern-Judging in Indirect Reciprocity. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 56, 175-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2013.08.006
[36] Van Apeldoorn, J., & Schram, A. (2016). Indirect Reciprocity: A Field Experiment. PLoS ONE, 11, e0152076. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152076
[37] Zahavi, A. (1990). Arabian Babblers: The Quest for Social Status in a Cooperative Breeder. In P. B. Stacey, & W. D. Koenig (Eds.), Cooperative Breeding in Birds (pp. 103-130). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511752452.005