HJAS  >> Vol. 7 No. 3 (June 2017)

    纳米技术在农业镉治理及增产提质上的应用研究
    Research on Nanotechnology Applied to Cadmium Treatment and Increase Production of Agriculture

  • 全文下载: PDF(721KB) HTML   XML   PP.252-266   DOI: 10.12677/HJAS.2017.73034  
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作者:  

龚建华:株洲市农业科学研究所,湖南 株洲;
薛合伦:成都正光投资集团有限公司,四川 成都

关键词:
纳米技术农业镉治理增产延长花期Nanotechnology Nano-Ecological Cadmium-Resistant Agent Agriculture Reduction of Cadmium Increase Production Extension of Flowering Period

摘要:

纳米技术在农业领域已有诸多应用,但在农业镉治理及花卉提质增效方面鲜见报道。本研究旨在通过纳米生态阻镉剂(I型-V型)应用试验,为农产品镉治理提供新的途径和方法。研究表明,传统栽培方式下,在土壤镉背景0.42 mg/kg时,IV型对稻米的降镉率高达80%,稻米镉含量远低于国标;在土壤镉含量高达2.549 mg/kg时,II型对稻米的降镉率仍达到20.3%。在全生育期灌水的栽培方式下,土壤镉含量0.64 mg/kg时,II型40 kg/667 m2的降镉效果最好,达20.74%;在超高镉土壤背景4.0 mg/kg时,II型160 kg/667 m2的降镉效果最好,达25.40%;在土壤镉含量2.06 mg/kg时,IV型和V型对稻米的降鎘效果均达到40%以上;在土壤镉含量上升到到2.929 mg/kg时,IV型和V型对稻米的降鎘效果明显降低。II型对芹菜(镉背景0.8 mg/kg)、茄子(镉背景0.33 mg/kg)、大棚辣椒(镉背景1.2 mg/kg)、露地辣椒(镉背景0.29 mg/kg)的降镉率分别达到38.13%、28.07%、30.29%、50%,其中大棚辣椒施用II型80 kg/667 m2的降镉效果显著高于40 kg/667 m2和对照(α = 0.05)。在土壤镉背景1.49 mg/kg时,III型对浙大长萝卜的降镉率达31.08%。II型和III型对水稻具有良好的增产作用,I型对百合花具有明显的延长花期效果。提出了纳米技术镉治理“VPON”推广模式(V:低镉品种;P:土壤pH值;O:有机肥;N:纳米生态阻镉剂)。

Nanotechnology has been widely applied to agricultural fields, but the control of cadmium pollu-tion in agriculture and flower quality improvements are rarely reported. The aim of this study is to provide a new way and scientific basis for the application of nano cadmium-resistant agent (I-V). The results showed that the cadmium reduction rate of rice was 80% and that of rice was much lower than that of national standard under the condition of low cadmium soil (0.42 mg/kg). In the high cadmium soil background (2.549 mg/kg), the rate of cadmium reduction of type II to rice was 20.30%. The results showed that the soil cadmium content was 0.64 mg/kg, and the effect of type II 40 kg/667 m2 was the best, reaching 20.74%. In the cadmium soil background (4.0 mg/kg), the effect of controlling cadmium of type II 160 kg/667 m2 was the best, reaching 25.40%. In the soil cadmium content of 2.06 mg/kg, the effect of type IV and V to rice was more than 40%. When the soil cadmium content rose to 2.929 mg/kg, the effect of type IV and V were significantly reduced. The cadmium reduction rate of celery (cadmium background 0.8 mg/kg), eggplant (cadmium background 0.33 mg/kg), greenhouse pepper (1.2 mg/kg cadmium background) and open pepper (0.29 mg/kg cadmium background) were 38.13%, 28.07%, 30.29% and 50% respectively. The effect of reducing the amount of cadmium on the capsaicum type II 80 kg/667m2 was significantly higher than that of 40 kg/667m2 and control (a = 0.05). In the soil cadmium background 1.49 mg/kg, III type of Zhejiang long radish reached cadmium reduction rate of 31.08%. Besides, type II and III had significant effect on rice production, and type I had obvious effect on lengthening lily flowering period. We proposed the “VPON” promotion model of nanotechnology cadmium treatment (V: Low cadmium variety; P: Soil pH value; O: Organic fertilizer; N: Nano-ecological cadmium-resistant agent).

文章引用:
龚建华, 薛合伦. 纳米技术在农业镉治理及增产提质上的应用研究[J]. 农业科学, 2017, 7(3): 252-266. https://doi.org/10.12677/HJAS.2017.73034

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