JWRR  >> Vol. 6 No. 4 (August 2017)

    提高黄河水资源利用效益的途径
    The Way of Enhancing Effectiveness for Utilization Water Resources on the Yellow River

  • 全文下载: PDF(393KB) HTML   XML   PP.384-391   DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2017.64045  
  • 下载量: 173  浏览量: 742   国家科技经费支持

作者:  

彭瑞善:中国水利水电科学研究院泥沙研究所,北京

关键词:
水资源水体资源水能资源节水灌溉发电综合效益黄河Water Resources Water Body Resources Hydraulic Power Resources Irrigation of Water Saving Power Generation Comprehensive Effectiveness Yellow River

摘要:

对于有水电资源可开发的河流,应尽力先在河流上中游灌区推广节水灌溉技术,因为那里地势高,水体具有较大的势能,节约的水不但可增大其下游长河段的基流,而且可增加梯级电站的发电量和保证出力。黄河流域位于华北干旱缺水地区,水量主要来自兰州以上,水能资源主要集中在上中游多石峡至青铜峡、河口镇(头道拐)至禹门口和潼关至西霞院3个峡谷河段。干流已建成30座水电站。取用黄河水量最多的项目为农田灌溉,农田灌溉用水最多的河段为上游兰州至河口镇干旱地区和下游花园口以下华北平原。为了充分利用黄河的水资源,应在上游干旱地区大力推广节水灌溉技术,其节约的水量先通过梯级电站发电后,再流入花园口以下河段。既增大了下游河道的基流,有利于取水,航运、生态环境等,又可增加梯级电站的发电量和保证出力,从而提高黄河水资源的综合利用效益。

For the river with a hydropower potential, it is highly recommended to promote water saving irrigation strategy in the upper stream and midstream, where the water has a higher topography and greater potential energy. The water saved will not only increase the stream base flow in the long lower reaches, but also increase both energy output and firm power of the cascade hydropower stations. The Yellow River basin is located in arid areas of North China, and the water mainly comes from the upper course of Lanzhou. The hydraulic power resources of the river are mainly located in the upper and middle reaches, along the 3 gorge segments from Duoshixia to Qingtongxia, Hekouzhen (Toudaoguai) to Yumenkou, and Tongguan to Xixiayuan, where 30 hydroelectric power plants have been constructed. The use of Yellow River water has contributed mostly to farmland irrigation, that occurs largely in the segment from Lanzhou to Hekouzhen arid area in the upper reach, and the North China Plain downstream of Huayuankou. In order to make full use of water resources in the Yellow River, the water saving irrigation strategy needs to be widely implemented in upper reach arid areas. The saved water, after running through the cascade hydropower stations to generate more electric powers, flows into the lower reach of the Yellow River. This will not only increase the base flow in the lower reach to benefit water usage, shipping, and the ecological environment etc., but also increase both energy output and firm power of the cascade hydropower stations for a more effective utilization of water resources in the Yellow River.

文章引用:
彭瑞善. 提高黄河水资源利用效益的途径[J]. 水资源研究, 2017, 6(4): 384-391. https://doi.org/10.12677/JWRR.2017.64045

参考文献

[1] 黄河水利委员会. 黄河流域综合规划(2012~2030年)概要[EB/OL]. 2015-03-21. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/201303/t20130321_129411.html Yellow River Conservancy Commission. Yellow River basin comprehensive planning (2012-2030) essentials. 2015-03-21. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/201303/t20130321-129411.html (in Chinese)
[2] 黄河水利委员会. 干流工程布局和控制性骨干工程规划[EB/OL]. 2014-02-11. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/200612/t20061222_75475.html Yellow River Conservancy Commission. Layout of main stream works and control key project planning. 2014-02-11. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/200612/t20061222_75475.html (in Chinese)
[3] 黄河水利委员会. 水资源利用与规划[EB/OL]. 2015-01-10. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/200612/t20061222_75458.html Yellow River Conservancy Commission. Water resources utilization and planning. 2015-01-10. http://www.yellowriver.gov.cn/zwzc/lygh/200612/t20061222_75458.html (in Chinese)
[4] 黄河水利委员会. 黄河流域防洪规划[M]. 郑州: 黄河水利出版社, 2008: 136. Yellow River Conservancy Commission. Yellow River basin planning of flood prevention. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Water Resources Press, 2008: 136. (in Chinese)
[5] 中共中央国务院关于深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革加快培育农业农村发展新动能的若干意见[EB/OL]. 2017. http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/szyw/201702/t20170206-791013.html The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China State Council: Opinions on deepening supply-side structural reform in agriculture and accelerating the cultivation of new growth engines in agriculture and rural areas. http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/szyw/201702/t20170206-791013.html (in Chinese)
[6] 新华社. 农业命脉强根基: 大力实施节水工程[EB/OL]. 2017. http://www.gov.cn/slzx/mtzx/xhsxhw/201702/t20170213-844937.html Xinhua News Agency: The strong foundation of agriculture lifeblood: Vigorously promoting large scale agricultural water saving projects. http://www.gov.cn/slzx/mtzx/xhsxhw/201702/t20170213-844937.html (in Chinese)
[7] 彭瑞善. 粗谈黄河的治理规划[C]//治黄规划座谈会秘书组. 治黄规划座谈会文件及代表发言汇编, 郑州: 黄河水利委员会. 1988: 134-136. PENG Ruishan. Discuss on harnessing planning of the Yellow River. Secretariat of Forum on Harnessing Planning of the Yellow River. The documents collection on forum of harnessing planning of the yellow river. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Conservancy Commission. 1988: 134-136. (in Chinese)