AG  >> Vol. 7 No. 4 (August 2017)

    杞麓湖水质参数季节性变化
    Seasonal Variations of Water Quality Parameters in Lake Qilu

  • 全文下载: PDF(6746KB) HTML   XML   PP.487-499   DOI: 10.12677/AG.2017.74051  
  • 下载量: 204  浏览量: 266  

作者:  

周瑜,张虎才,常凤琴,段立曾,李华勇,文新宇,毕荣鑫,吴汉,朱梦姝:云南师范大学旅游与地理科学学院,高原湖泊生态与全球变化实验室,云南省地理过程与环境变化重点实验室,云南 昆明

关键词:
杞麓湖季节变化水温溶解氧叶绿素apH浊度Lake Qilu Seasonal Variation Water Temperature Dissolved Oxygen Chlorophyll-a pH Turbidity+

摘要:

本文通过对杞麓湖2015年10月、2016年1月、5月、6月、10月水温(Temp)、溶解氧(DO)、叶绿素a(Chl-a)浓度、pH、浊度(Turbid+)进行垂直剖面监测数据分析,给出了杞麓湖水质现状数据,在此基础上讨论了杞麓湖水体水质参数季节性变化特征。分析结果表明,作为典型高原浅水湖泊的杞麓湖,其水质参数季节性变化明显,其中水温是受季节变化影响最显著的环境因子,受湖水扰动作用,混合性较强,加之由于湖水较浅,水温表现为垂直方向上变化不明显,水温随气温变化也不存在滞后效应。受杞麓湖盆地效应及气象站点海拔影响,监测时段内水温均略高于气温。流域降水集中在每年6~10月,水汽的滴落、蒸发对当地气温短时段变化有一定影响。杞麓湖对流域气候的调节作用显著,这一点在冬季尤为重要。湖水叶绿素a浓度、溶解氧受人类活动影响,季节性差异明显,空间差异较大。杞麓湖各季节pH在7.6~8.8之间波动,与藻类光合作用及底层有机物腐解关系密切。浊度在6月达到最大值,可能与藻类爆发、污水的集中输入以及湖水扰动底泥释放有关,对湖泊产生不利影响。湖水氮磷浓度均处于较高水平,外源污染输入是造成湖泊富营养化的主要原因,底泥的释放也是引起湖水营养盐浓度升高的又一原因。监测时段内,湖泊水质整体处于恶化状态,湖泊营养化加重、藻类浓度上升、生态效益退化。杞麓湖的生态环境治理需要科学的管理理念和措施、更多的资金投入和更有效的管理。

To understand the characteristics of water quality, their seasonal variations and vertical thermal dynamics, the water temperature (Temp), dissolve oxygen (DO), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), pH and Turbidity+ (Turbid+) of Lake Qilu, one of the typical plateau shallow lakes in Yunnan Plateau, were measured in October of 2015 and January, May, June, October of 2016. The data analysis results show a complex seasonal change picture of the water quality parameters. The water temperature did not change significantly in the vertical profile and following the air temperature. Affected by the Lake Qilu Basin and the altitude of weather station, the measured water temperature is slightly higher than the air temperature during the monitoring period. As the precipitation in Lake Qilu Basin concentrated in the rainy season, which lasted from June to October, short term local temperature was affected by the evaporation and raining processes. Certainly, the existence of Lake Qilu possesses a strong effect on the climate-environments of the drainage area, especially during the winter. The monitored data revealed large seasonal variations and spatial differences of the contents of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen in the lake water, which are closely related with the human activities in the region. The pH values of Lake Qilu fluctuated between 7.6 - 8.8 that related to the photosynthesis of algae and the aerobic decomposition of organics at the bottom of the lake. The turbidity was higher in June, which might be related to the outbreak of algae, the polluted river water discharges into the lake and pollutant release from the lake sediment caused by lake water disturbance. The contents of both nitrogen and phosphorus in Lake Qilu are at a high level. It was concluded that the external pollutant input is one of the main sources of lake, and further the main factors inducing eutrophication of the lake water. During the monitoring period, the lake water quality as a whole is deteriorating, the lake nutrition is increasing, and the algae concentration is rising. It is the time to take serious measurements to protect the Lake Qilu from the further deterioration, even it is already too late to keep the lake function properly and effectively.

文章引用:
周瑜, 张虎才, 常凤琴, 段立曾, 李华勇, 文新宇, 毕荣鑫, 吴汉, 朱梦姝. 杞麓湖水质参数季节性变化[J]. 地球科学前沿, 2017, 7(4): 487-499. https://doi.org/10.12677/AG.2017.74051

参考文献

[1] 史正涛, 明庆忠, 张虎才. 云南高原典型湖泊现代过程及环境演变研究进展[J]. 云南地理环境研究, 2005, 17(1): 24-26.
[2] 王苏民, 窦鸿身. 中国湖泊志[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 1998: 21-384.
[3] 王斌, 马健, 王银亚, 尹湘江. 天山天池水体季节性分层特征[J]. 湖泊科学, 2015, 27(6): 1997-1204.
[4] 张虎才. 滇池构造漏水隐患及水安全[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(8): 849-857.
[5] 张云鹰, 谢曼平, 刘姗姗, 等. 抚仙湖和星云湖水质变化趋势分析[J]. 地理科学研究, 2015(4): 81-94.
[6] 师琼. 杞麓湖水质变化分析及保护对策探讨[J]. 人民珠江, 2012, 33(3): 45-47.
[7] 王建云, 王云华. 星云湖、杞麓湖污染特征与产业结构关联的思考[J]. 环境科学导刊, 2010, 29(6): 35-38.
[8] 刘阳, 吴钢, 高正文. 云南省抚仙湖和杞麓湖流域土地利用变化对水质的影响[J]. 生态学杂志, 2008, 27(3): 447- 453.
[9] 刘宇, 祁云宽, 刘绍俊, 等. 杞麓湖流域点源污染分析及控制策略[J]. 环境科学导刊, 2016(1): 26-30.
[10] 杨磊, 常凤琴. 近代以来杞麓湖流域气候变化与人类活动的湖泊沉积记录研究[J]. 城市地理, 2015(18): 247.
[11] 张东帅, 靳菡. 杞麓湖表层沉积物磷形态的分布特征[J]. 科技创新导报, 2011(31): 151-152.
[12] 秦洁, 吴献花, 高卫国, 杨世华, 王泉, 罗维佳. 杞麓湖叶绿素a与水质因子时空分布特征及相关性研究[J]. 安徽农业科学, 2012, 40(1): 345-348.
[13] 文新宇, 张虎才, 常凤琴, 等. 泸沽湖水体垂直断面季节性分层[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(8): 858-869.
[14] 董云仙, 赵磊, 陈异晖, 等. 云南九大高原湖泊的演变与生态安全调控[J]. 生态经济, 2015, 31(1): 185-191.
[15] 董云仙, 刘宇, 李荫玺, 等. 云南杞麓湖生态脆弱因素分析[J]. 环境科学导刊, 2011, 30(5): 24-29.
[16] 王建云, 王云华. 星云湖、杞麓湖磷污染来源比较[J]. 环境科学导刊, 2007, 26(3): 8-10.
[17] 张军莉, 赵磊, 赵琳娜, 谭志卫, 王俊松, 李转寿. 杞麓湖湖滨带农田排涝区农田排水入湖污染负荷研究[J]. 环境科学导刊, 2013, 32(1): 33-34.
[18] 许杰玉, 赵晓飞, 吕春英, 等. 高原湖泊流域水环境特征与污染防治综合整治研究[J]. 环境科学与管理, 2015, 40(3): 49-52.
[19] 王震, 邹华, 杨桂军, 张虎军, 庄严. 太湖叶绿素a的时空分布特征及其与环境因子的相关关系[J]. 湖泊科学2014, 26(4): 567-575.
[20] 马腾飞. 蓝藻水华暴发对水质参数变化趋势的影响[J]. 广东水利水电, 2013(A01): 54-57.
[21] 金相灿, 朱萱. 我国主要湖泊和水库水体的营养特征及其变化[J]. 环境科学研究, 1991(1): 11-20.
[22] 马建薇, 刘俊良, 李燕, 等. 物理因素对白洋淀溶解氧的影响[J]. 中国农村水利水电, 2013(8): 21-24.
[23] 成晓奕, 李慧赟, 戴淑君. 天目湖沙河水库溶解氧分层的季节变化及其对水环境影响的模拟[J]. 湖泊科学, 2013, 25(6): 818-826.
[24] 秦洁, 吴献花, 高卫国. 杞麓湖富营养化控制因子研究[J]. 玉溪师范学院学报, 2010, 26(12): 26-30.
[25] An, K.G. and Jones, J.R. (2000) Factor Regulating Blue-Green Dominance in a Reservoir Directly Influenced by the Asian Monsoon. Hydrobiologia, 432, 37-48.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004077220519
[26] 王庭健, 苏睿, 金相灿, 等. 城市富营养湖泊沉积物中磷负荷及其释放对水质的影响[J]. 环境科学研究, 1994, 7(4): 12-19.
[27] 吴献花, 秦洁, 吴斌, 赵斌, 王泉, 郭红, 等. 杞麓湖表层底质营养盐的时空分布特征及评价[J]. 环境工程技术学报, 2012, 2(4): 296-302.