土壤科学  >> Vol. 5 No. 3 (July 2017)

一种评估土壤团聚体稳定性的搅拌破碎能量法
Using Mechanic Stirring Method to Assess the Stability Energy of Soil Aggregate

DOI: 10.12677/HJSS.2017.53004, PDF, HTML, XML, 下载: 1,009  浏览: 2,808  国家自然科学基金支持

作者: 谷月, 林芳:西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院,陕西 杨凌;朱兆龙*:西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院,陕西 杨凌;西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,陕西 杨凌;安韶山:西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,陕西 杨凌

关键词: 土壤团聚体稳定性搅拌破碎能量Yoder湿筛法Soil Aggregate Stability Stirred Dispersive Energy Wet Sieving

摘要: 土壤团聚体稳定性是评价土壤质量高低的重要指标,开展团聚体稳定性定量评估对于土壤质量评价具有重要意义。国内外对于土壤团聚体稳定性的定量研究很少,当前尚无成熟的团聚体稳定性量化理论与技术。鉴于此,该文提出了一种评估土壤团聚体稳定性的搅拌破碎能量法。通过实时监测土水溶液搅拌过程中的搅拌机电功率和溶液温度,由能量转化守恒定律计算出土壤搅拌破碎能量,从而确定土壤团聚体的稳定性。通过纯水和完全破碎土样与团聚土样的对比试验,验证了方法的可行性,即同等试验条件下,系统损耗相同,而且团聚土样和完全破碎土样或者纯水的搅拌功率差为搅拌破碎功率。在此基础上通过红壤、黑土和塿土3种对照土样的测试,并与Yoder湿筛法作对比,验证方法的实用性。测量结果表明,红壤稳定性最好,其搅拌破碎能量最大,为48.59 J/g-1,而塿土和黑土则分别为28.67和25.59 J/g-1,表现出相近的弱稳定性。Yoder湿筛法测定的平均质量直径分别为红壤0.69 mm,塿土0.35 mm,黑土0.41 mm,其稳定性评估结果与搅拌破碎能量法一致,证明了方法的实用性。
Abstract: It is of great importance to quantify the stability of soil aggregate, as an important indicator for soil quality assessment. However, there were no standard theories and techniques to quantify the index. Here a mechanic stirring method to quantify the stability energy of soil aggregate is introduced, where a stirred-dispersive energy was recorded from the real-time change of the motor power and temperature of soil water system. Additionally, companied pure-water test, as well as dispersed and undispersed soil were conducted, and validated the innovating method. Moreover, various types of soils from different Chinese provinces were collected, that is Red earths from Jiangxi Province, Black soils from Jilin Province, and Lou soil from Yangling, Shaanxi Province, for the test of aggregate stability with Yoder wet-sieving method. The stirred dispersive energies of Red earths, Black soils, and Lou soil were 48.59, 25.59, and 28.67 J/g-1, indicating a highest stability of Red earths, followed by Black soils and Lou soil (similar). An evident-validating was found using wet sieving, with a corresponding Mean Weight Diameters (MWD) of 0.69, 0.41, and 0.35 mm, respectively. To sum up, our results showed the accuracy and practicability of the stirred dispersive energy method.

文章引用: 谷月, 朱兆龙, 安韶山, 林芳. 一种评估土壤团聚体稳定性的搅拌破碎能量法[J]. 土壤科学, 2017, 5(3): 33-40. https://doi.org/10.12677/HJSS.2017.53004

参考文献

[1] Tisdall, J.M. and Oades, J.M. (1982) Organic Matter and Water-Stable Aggregates. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141-163.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01755.x
[2] 祁迎春, 王益权, 刘军, 等. 不同土地利用方式土壤团聚体组成及几种团聚体稳定性指标的比较[J]. 农业工程学报, 2011, 27(1): 340-347.
[3] 王秀颖, 高晓飞, 刘和平, 等. 土壤水稳性大团聚体测定方法综述[J]. 中国水土保持科学, 2011, 9(3): 106-113.
[4] 郭军玲, 王虹艳, 卢升高. 亚热带土壤团聚体测定方法的比较研究[J]. 土壤通报, 2010, 41(3): 542-546.
[5] 朱兆龙, 何东健, 李敏通. 一种土壤团聚体稳定性评估系统[J]. 中国科学: 信息科学, 2010(40): 152-159.
[6] Zhu, Z.L., Minasny, B. and Field, D.J. (2009) Measurement of Aggregate Bond Energy Using Ultrasonic Dispersion. European Journal of Soil Science, 60, 695-705.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01146.x
[7] Zhu, Z.L., Field, D.J. and Minasny, B. (2010) Measuring and Modelling the Actual Energy Involved in Aggregate Breakdown. Catena, 82, 53-60.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.04.009
[8] Rawlings, B.G., Wragg, J. and Lark, R.M. (2013) Application of A Novel Method for Soil Aggregate Stability Measurement by Laser Granulometry with Sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12017
[9] Lehtinen, T., Lair, G.L., Mentler, A., et al. (2014) Soil Aggregate Stability in Different Soil Orders Quantified by Low Dispersive Ultrasonic Energy Levels. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78, 713-723.
https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2013.02.0073
[10] 依艳丽. 土壤物理研究法[M]. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2009.
[11] 徐爽, 王益权. 不同类型土壤团聚体化学稳定性分析[J]. 农业机械学报, 2014, 45(4): 173-178.
[12] 史奕, 陈欣, 闻大中. 东北黑土团聚体水稳定性研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报, 2005, 13(4): 95-98.
[13] 薛彦飞, 薛文, 张树兰, 等. 长期不同施肥对塿土团聚体胶结剂的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2015, 21(6): 1622-1632.
[14] 李婕, 杨学云, 孙本华, 等. 不同土壤管理措施下塿土团聚体的大小分布及其稳定性[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2014, 20(2): 346-354.
[15] 常庆瑞, 闫湘, 雷梅, 等. 关于塿土分类地位的讨论[J]. 西北农林科技大学学报, 2001, 29(3): 48-52.