# 社会比较对女大学生着装压力的影响——身体意象的中介作用How Female College Students’ Social Comparison Influence Dressing Pressure: Mediating Effect of Body Image

• 全文下载: PDF(793KB)    PP.788-796   DOI: 10.12677/AP.2018.85093
• 下载量: 492  浏览量: 804   国家科技经费支持

The following three scales were used in the survey of 450 female college students from six universities in Guangzhou: Social Comparison Questionnaire, Negative Body Image Scale, and Female Dress Pressure to collect data to explore the effect of social comparison on dress pressure of female undergraduates, and the mediating effect of body image on it. The results show that: 1) The results of descriptive statistics show that only 3.3% of female college students in Guangzhou are overweight; the average of social comparison scale is 2.87, so the female college students have social comparison; the average of body image scale is 2.59. However, there are differences in all dimensions; the average of dress pressure scale is 3.27, female college students feel the pressure of dress. 2) There was no significant difference in the dress pressure scores among the BMI groups, while the scores of normal group are higher than those in the lean group (p < 0.000). The normal group of body image scores is higher than those in the thin group. The scores of fat group are higher than those in thin group (p < 0.001). 3) Correlation analysis between the three factors showed that there was a positive correlation between social comparison and body image (r = 0.498, p < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between social comparison and dress pressure (r = 0.478, p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between body image and dress pressure (r = 0.444, p < 0.001). 4) Stepwise regression analysis shows that social comparison has a positive predictive effect on dress pressure (β = 0.455, t = 10.94, p < 0.001), body image (β = 0.537, t = 12.58, p < 0.001); Stepwise social comparison (β = 0.340, t = 6.47, p < 0.001) and body image (β = −0.213, t = 4.07, p < 0.001) had a positive predictive effect on female college students’ dress pressure. Therefore, the mediating effect of body image on social comparison and dress pressure is significant. Finally, the results of this study are conducive to understanding the influence of social comparison on the body image of teenagers and the female college students dress pressure, and it is of great significance to correct the body image of college students and to reduce the pressure on women’s dress.

1. 引言

2. 方法

2.1. 被试

2.2. 工具

2.2.1. 身体社会比较问卷 (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale, PACS)

2.2.2. 简版负面身体意象量表

2.2.3. 女性着装压力调查问卷

2.3. 程序及数据处理

3. 结果

3.1. 调查结果之描述性分析

3.1.1. 女大学生BMI总体状况

3.1.2. 女大学生社会比较状况

3.1.3. 女大学生身体意向状况

Table 1. Table of BMI for female college students in Guangzhou

Table 2. Body image of female college students in Guangzhou

3.1.4. 女大学生着装压力状况

3.2. 不同BMI学生身体社会比较、身体意向、着装压力评分比较

3.3. 社会比较、身体意象、着装压力的相关分析

3.4. 社会比较、身体意象、着装压力的回归分析

3.4.1. 共同方法偏差的控制与检验

Table 3. Dress pressure for female college students in Guangzhou

Table 4. Social comparison, Dressing Pressures, and body image for the three groups of students ( x ¯ ± s )

Table 5. Correlation Matrix of social comparison, Dressing Pressure, body image

Table 6. Overall goodness of fit analysis of the model

3.4.2. 身体意象在社会比较和着装压力中的中介作用

4. 讨论

4.1. 女大学生BMI值、社会比较、身体意象、着装压力现状

Table 7. Mediating effect of body image on social comparison and Dressing Pressure

Figure 1. A model diagram of the mediating effects of Body Image on Social Comparison and Dress Pressure

4.2. 身体意象在社会比较影响着装压力之间的中介作用

4.3. 研究意义与不足

5. 结论

NOTES

*通讯作者。

 [1] 范存欣, 王惠苏, 马绍斌, 吴赤蓬, 刘国宁(2002). 女大学生减肥行为及其认知现状调查. 预防医学论坛, 8(4), 385-386. [2] 韩薇(2002). 身体态度与服饰消费. 苏州大学学报: 工科版, 22(5), 112-115. [3] 韩晓燕, 迟毓凯(2012). 自发社会比较中的威胁效应及自我平衡策略. 心理学报, 44(12), 1628-1640. [4] 刘达青(2009). 大众媒体、同伴对大学生身体意象的影响研究. 硕士论文, 厦门: 厦门大学. [5] 齐志家, 古怡(2003). 试谈服饰中的身体价值观. 武汉科技学院学报, 16(5), 103-105. [6] 唐锐, 陈红, 鲁小芳(2006). 女性瘦身理想的心理学阐释. 中国临床康复, 10(42), 146-148. [7] 王洪琴(2003). 女大学生对肥胖认识状况的调查分析. 中国健康教育, 19(7), 531-532. [8] 王丽(2006). 符号化的自我: 大学生服装消费行为中的自我概念研究. 北京: 中国社会科学出版社. [9] 易越(2013). 女性着装压力研究. 硕士学位论文, 重庆: 西南大学. [10] 周浩, 龙立荣(2004). 共同方法偏差的统计检验与控制方法. 心理科学进展, 12(6), 942-950. [11] Groesz, L. M., Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). The Effect of Experimental Presentation of Thin Media Images on Body Satisfaction: A Meta-Analytic Review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.10005 [12] Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2004). Idealized Media Images and Adolescent Body Image: “Comparing” Boys and Girls. Body Image, 1, 351-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.10.002 [13] Kaiser, S. B. (2000). 服装社会心理学[M]. 北京: 中国纺织出版社. [14] Polivy, J., & Herman, C. P. (2002). Causes of Eating Disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 187-213. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135103 [15] Rühl, I., Legenbauer, T., & Hiller, W. (2011). The Impact of Exposure to Images of Ideally Thin Models in TV Commercials on Eating Behavior: An Experimental Study with Women Diag-nosed with Bulimia Nervosa. Body Image, 8, 349-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.07.002 [16] Schilder, P. (1935). The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. Studies in the Constructive Energies of the Psyche, 15, 170. [17] Smeets, E., Jansen, A., Vossen, E., Ruf, L., & Roefs, A. (2010). Feeling Body Dissatisfied after Viewing Thin-Ideal Pictures Is Mediated by Self-Activation. Body Image, 7, 335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.07.001 [18] Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. [19] Tiggemann, M., & Lacey, C. (2009). Shopping for Clothes: Body Satisfaction, Appearance Investment, and Functions of Clothing among Female Shoppers. Body Image, 6, 285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.07.002