JWRR  >> Vol. 7 No. 6 (December 2018)

    新时代黄河治理方向探讨
    Direction of Harnessing the Yellow River in the New Period

  • 全文下载: PDF(595KB) HTML   XML   PP.584-594   DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2018.76066  
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作者:  

彭瑞善:中国水利水电科学研究院,泥沙研究所,北京

关键词:
持续淤积水土保持水库调节持续冲刷新时代根治黄河保护滩区Sustain Deposition Water and Soil Conservation Reservoir Regulation Sustain Erosion The New Period Comprehensive Harnessing the Yellow River Protection Floodplain Area

摘要:

水少沙多,搭配失调,造成河床持续淤积抬高是黄河难治的根本原因。经过大规模长时间的水土保持工作,特别是近十多年生态文明建设的成效,进入黄河的泥沙显著减少,再加上干支流水库调节水沙的作用,进入下游河道的洪水基本可以控制,泥沙不到过去的十分之一,2000至2017年,河道持续冲刷,预计未来的发展趋势是由冲刷到冲淤交替的准平衡状态。随着绿色发展理念的推进,不可能再发生持续淤积,再加上南水北调的补充水量,已进入可以根治黄河的新时代。上中游充分开发水能,大力推广节水灌溉技术,把黄土高原建设成基本稳定的下垫面,其泥沙流失量与下游河道的输沙能力和维持河口地区海岸线的稳定相适应。下游的治河方略可将“宽河固堤”修改为“稳定主槽,平衡输沙,关注滩区、两岸引水、生态环境、航运和滞洪区”。修建防御10,000 m3/s流量的生产堤,把滩区的防洪标准提高到百年一遇,从而改善滩区190万居民的生产生活条件。

It is the main reason of the difficult for harnessing the Yellow River that the condition of less water with more sediment and both no appropriate collocation, led to sustain deposition lifting the riverbed in the past. As marked effect of long time and large scale water and soil conservation works, especially with the achievements of the ecological civilization construction in the past more ten years, in the loess plateau, the sediments entering the Yellow River have been significantly reduced. Coupled with the regulation of water and sediments by the Main Yellow River and its tributaries reservoirs, the flood entering the lower reaches can be basically controlled. The sediment is less than one tenth of the past. From 2000 to 2017 years, the riverbed continued to be eroded. It is expected that the future development trend will be an eroded continually until alternating quasi-equilibrium state between erosion and deposition. With the advancement of the innovative green development concept, it will become unlikely to observe a sustained sediment deposition. In addition, with the help of the amount of water supplemented by the South-to-North Water Diversion project, the management of the Yellow River has entered a new era for a complete control. With a comprehensive exploitation of hydropower potentials in the upper and middle reaches and a vigorous to promote of the water-saving irrigation technology, the Loess Plateau is expected to be built into a stable underlying surface base. The amount of sediment loss will be compatible with the sediment transport capacity of the downstream river and the stability of the coastline near the estuary. The downstream river harnessing guiding can be modified from “widen river channel and consolidate riverbank” to “stabilize the main channel, balance the sediment transport, take care of the floodplain, diversion in both banks, ecological environment, and navigation and detention area”. Constructing an embankment on floodplain can resist a 10,000 m3/s flood discharge; the standard of flood control in the floodplain can be enhanced to once in one hundred years, thus improving the production and living conditions of the 1.9 million residents in the floodplain area.


1. 引言

黄河难治的根本原因是水少沙多,搭配失调,造成河道持续淤积。过去是由决口改道来减缓河床的淤积抬高速度。人民治黄以来,70多年伏秋大汛未发生决口,河床迅速淤积抬高,主要是依靠1950~1985年三次系统性全面堤防加高,东坝头以上加高了2~3 m,东坝头以下加高了4~5 m [1] 。为了从根本上治理黄河,在中上游黄土高原开展了大规模长时间的水土保持工作,特别是近十多年,工作更加踏实有效,进入黄河的泥沙显著减少,再加上龙羊峡、刘家峡、三门峡、小浪底等