心理学进展  >> Vol. 9 No. 1 (January 2019)

辣食渴求者对辣食相关线索反应的ERPs研究
Event-Related Potential Responses to Spicy Food-Related Cues in Spicy Cravers

DOI: 10.12677/AP.2019.91008, PDF, HTML, XML, 下载: 386  浏览: 539 

作者: 王健美, 张露露, 尹 明:西南大学心理学部,重庆

关键词: 辣食渴求者线索反应ERPsP3Spicy Food Craver Cue Reactivity Event-Related Potentials P3

摘要: 采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术,探讨辣食渴求者的辣食相关线索反应性。结果发现,辣食渴求者在辣食线索暴露后状态辣食渴求程度显著增加;相比较与非辣食线索,辣食相关线索诱发了辣食渴求者更大的P3波幅。这可能意味着辣食渴求者对辣食相关线索有着更多的情绪效价评估和注意资源分配。
Abstract: The event-related potential (ERP) technique was used to investigate the spicy food cue-reactivity in spicy cravers. The results showed that spicy food cravers reported stronger instantaneous spicy food craving after food cues exposed. Compared with the non-spicy food cues, the spicy food-related cues induced larger P3 amplitudes in spicy food cravers. This means that spicy food cravers may be more attention and emotional evaluation to spicy food-related cues.

文章引用: 王健美, 张露露, 尹明 (2019). 辣食渴求者对辣食相关线索反应的ERPs研究. 心理学进展, 9(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.12677/AP.2019.91008

1. 引言

辣食渴求是指一种难以抵抗地想要吃辛辣食物的强烈欲望,是食物渴求的从属概念。食物渴求(food craving)是一种难以抵抗地想要消耗某一种特定食物(或者食物类型)的强烈欲望(Hormes & Rozin, 2010)。这个定义有两个重要方面,一个是强烈的欲望,强烈程度将食物渴求与普通食物选择区分开来;另一个是特异性,这将食物渴望与饥饿进行了对比,当饥饿时,各种各样的食物都能让人感到满足,然而只有特定类型的食物才能满足食物渴求。正是强度和特异性将对食物的渴望与普通的饥饿感区分开来(Hill, 2007)。

在美国、加拿大和英国的调查研究发现食物渴求是普遍存在的,近100%的年轻成年女性报告在过去一年的某个时刻里经历过食物渴求(Pelchat, 1997)。有较多研究都发现食物渴求可以显著预测暴食行为、零食行为和体重增减(Buscemi, Rybak, Berlin, Murphy, & Raynor, 2017

事件相关电位(event-related potential, ERPs)有助于揭示个体对食物线索反应的神经机制。本研究采用线索反应范式(cue-reactivity paradigm),该范式广泛的运用与成瘾和食物渴求领域(Franken et al., 2008; Littel, Franken, Littel, & Franken, 2007)。有研究发现吸烟者比非吸烟者在额中区有着更大的波幅(Littel et al., 2007),相比较于中性线索和非香烟相关线索,香烟相关线索激活了吸烟者更大的P3波幅(Warren & Mcdonough, 1999)。越来越多的证据表明,物质渴求与食物的渴求之间存在共通之处(Pelchat, 2002

因此,本研究的目的:首先探讨辣食渴求者与非辣食渴求者在面对辣食相关线索时脑神经反应的差异;其次,探讨辣食线索暴露是否会增加辣食渴求程度。研究假设:辣食相关线索会诱发辣食渴求者更大的P3波幅,辣食相关线索暴露增加主观辣食渴求程度。

2. 方法

2.1. 被试

根据辣食渴求问卷(Spicy Food Craving Questionnaire, SFCQ)分数按照心理测量学中的27%比例,划分高分组和低分组,最终样本包括辣食渴求者25人(女12,男13),非辣食渴求者23人(女10,男13)。年龄18~25岁之间(M = 19.68, SD = 1.68)。所有参与者均获得经济补偿和受试者的书面知情同意。

2.2. 测验工具与实验材料

辣食渴求问卷(Spicy Food Craving Questionnaire, SFCQ):采用在中国文化背景下编制《辣食渴求问卷》(Zhou, Gao, Small, & Chen, 2018),问卷包含两个维度,维度1为行为和积极强化,维度2为想法和意图。采用7点评定(1 = 完全不符合,7 = 完全符合),总分越高表示辣食渴求程度越高,反之表示渴求程度越低。

辣食摄入频率(The frequency of spicy food intake):采用Lawless等人的辣食摄入频率问题:“你多久消耗一次含红辣椒并且能引起灼热感的食物?”(Lawless, Rozin, & Shenker, 1985)。回答以7点计分,1 =少于1次/年,2 = 少于1次/月,3 = 1~3次/月,4 = 1次/周,5 = 3~4次/周,6 = 1次/天,7 = 多于1次/天。

状态辣食渴求:采用视觉模拟评分(VAS)评估实验参与者当前时刻的主观辣食渴求程度。

图片材料:选取周一舟等(Zhou et al., 2018)评定的辣食图片和非辣食图片各20张,所有图片均使用Photoshop 7.0软件进行后期尺寸、像素统一,尺寸为433 × 315,分辨率为100。辣食图片材料与非辣食图片材料在辣度上差异显著,在美味度、愉悦度、熟悉度等主要维度上无显著差异。

2.3. 实验程序

被试要求被动浏览刺激图片,无需任何额外任务。共200个trail,在500 ms的注视点消失后图片刺激呈现2000 ms,随后黑屏2000 ms,进入下一个trail。在实验开始前和实验结束后采用VAS测量被试当前主观辣食渴求程度。

2.4. 脑电数据记录和分析

采用德国Brain Products公司脑电记录仪器(64导电极帽)和分析系统,双侧乳突平均值为参考,接地点为FPz和Fz电极点的中点位置, 同时记录水平眼电(HEOG)和垂直眼电(VEOG)。采样率为1000 Hz,所有电极处的头皮电阻保持在5 kΩ以下。

实验完成后采用MATLAB R2014a,EEGLAB14.1.1b工具包对数据进行离线分析,步骤包括去除眼电伪迹、分段、基线校正、去除其他伪迹、叠加平均等。其中分段选择时程为1000 ms,以刺激界面出现之前的200 ms作为基线时间,滤波带通为0.1~45 Hz。根据拓扑图和以往文献,选取的成分和时间窗为:N1 (80~120 ms),P2 (130~190 ms),P3 (260~310 ms);研究中选取五个脑区进行分析,分别为前额区(F3, Fz, F4),前额中央区(FC3, FCz, FC4),中央区(C3,Cz, C4),中央顶叶区(CP3, CPz, CP4)和顶叶区(P3, Pz, P4),每个脑区选取的三个电极点的平均值作为该脑区的计算数值。

对脑电数据进行2 (组别:辣食渴求组、非辣食渴求组) × 2 (刺激类型:辣食相关刺激,非辣食相关刺激) × 5 (电极位置:前额、额中、中央、中顶、顶叶)的重复测量方差分析,统计结果使用Greenhouse-Geisser 矫正p值。统计显著水平选用<0.05,统计的效应值则使用η2 p,事后比较选用Bonferroni-adjusted相关。

3. 结果

3.1. 初步信息

辣食渴求者与非辣食渴求者在年龄无显著差异T(1,44) = −1.09,p = 0.281;两组在BMI上无显著差异T(1,44) = −0.872,p = 0.388;辣食渴求者的SFCQ得分显著高于非辣食渴求者,T(1,44) = 19.39,p < 0.001,说明分组有效。

3.2. 状态辣食渴求前后测

采用2 (时间:前测,后测) × 2 (组别:辣食渴求者,非辣食渴求者)重复测量方法分析,发现组别主效应显著,F(1,46) = 101.08,p < 0.001,ηp2 = 0.69;时间主效应显著,F(1,46) = 64.57,p < 0.001,ηp2 = 0.57;时间与组别的交互作用显著,F(1,44) = 26.52,p < 0.001,ηp2 = 0.37。事后检验发现,辣食渴求者在辣食线索暴露后辣食渴求显著增加,而非辣食渴求者在暴露前后没有显著差异,如图1

Figure 1. Changes in the cravings of spicy foods in the spicy food cravings and the control group before and after the exposure of the spicy food cues

图1. 辣食线索暴露前后辣食渴求者和对照组状态辣食渴求程度变化

3.3. ERP结果(图2)

N1:组别的主效应不显著,F(1,46) = 0.81,p = 0.372;组别与刺激类型的交互作用不显著,F(1,46) = 1.38,p = 0.247;组别、刺激类型和脑区的交互作用不显著,F(1,46) = 1.61,p = 0.173。P2:组别的主效应不显著,F(1,46) = 0.53,p = 0.471;组别与刺激类型的交互作用不显著,F(1,46) = 0.076,p = 0.784;组别、刺激类型和脑区的交互作用不显著,F(1,46) = 0.123,p = 0.974。P3:组别主效应不显著,F(1,46) = 2.014,p = 0.163;组别和刺激类型的交互作用显著,F(1,46) = 7.76,p < 0.01,ηp2 = 0.14;组别、刺激类型和脑区的交互作用显著,F(1,46) = 3.745,p < 0.05,ηp2 = 0.08。事后检验发现,辣食相关线索比非辣食相关线索诱发了辣食渴求者更大P3波幅,主要集中在前额叶脑区,非辣食渴求者的两种刺激类型诱发的P3波幅没有显著差异。

Figure 2. Grand-average ERPs

图2. 总平均波形图

4. 讨论

研究表明,辣食线索暴露后,辣食渴求者的状态辣食渴求显著增加;辣食渴求者对辣食相关线索有着更大的P3波幅。P3波幅与注意、情绪等多种因素有关,在一项使用高阶条件反射任务的研究中发现,香烟线索能诱发吸烟者更大的P3波幅,表示相对于中性线索来说,吸烟者对香烟线索有着更多的注意资源分配(Littel, 2012)。与中性线索相比较,酒精相关线索诱发了饮酒者前额叶更大的P3波幅,对酒精线索分配了更多的注意资源(Herrmann et al., 2000; Herrmann, Weijers, Wiesbeck, Böning, & Fallgatter, 2001)。本研究结果与在香烟、酒精等物质渴求领域的研究结果相一致。此外,情绪刺激比中性刺激能诱发更大的P3波幅(Schupp et al., 2010)。因此,与非辣食线索相比,辣食线索诱发了辣食渴求者更大的P3波幅,这可能是辣食渴求者对辣食线索有着更积极的情绪效价和注意偏向的结果。

N1和P2与早期无意识的注意分配有关(Ying, Xu, Ke, An, & Sun, 2015),辣食渴求者和非辣食渴求者的N1、P2上没有显著差异,这表明辣食渴求者与非辣食渴求者在早期注意上是没有差异的。辣食相关线索暴露后,辣食渴求者的状态辣食渴求显著增加,这与前人在物质渴求领域的研究结果相一致,这表明辣食相关线索与渴求之间存在条件反射(Boswell & Kober, 2016)。

本研究尚存以下不足:首先,样本样本来源均是在校大学生,导致本研究结果的可推广性较差,未来研究可考虑进一步扩大样本来源,应选取包含不同年龄、教育程度的样本,以增强实验结果的可推广性。其次,本研究只局限于被动浏览任务和ERP技术,未来研究应该结合fMRI和更多的实验范式探讨辣食渴求者的线索反应性。

5. 结论

辣食相关线索暴露会增加辣食渴求者的状态辣食渴求,并且辣食相关线索诱发了辣食渴求者前额叶区更大的P3波幅。

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