# 2种鼠尾草对CdCl2胁迫的耐受性比较及生理机制的研究Study on Tolerance Comparison of Two Salvia to CdCl2 Stress and Its Physiological Mechanism

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Through the water cultivation, effects of treatments with different concentrations of CdCl2(0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 mg∙L−1) on growth, antioxidant enzyme activities of leaves, activities of H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in the plasma membrane of root, as well as N and P contents of Salvia meiliensis and Salvia cavaleriei were studied in order to compare the tolerance difference between two Salvia to the stress of CaCl2and analyze the physiological mechanism. The result showed that: 1) When the concentration of CdCl2 was 140 mg∙L−1, dry weights of the over ground part, underground part and the plant of S. cavaleriei are lower than those in the control; 2) With the increase of CdCl2 concentration, the accelerating effects on activities of CAT and POD in S. cavaleriei had been gradually enhanced, but the accelerating effects on activities of POD and CAT in S. meiliensis had been weakened respectively when the concentration of CdCl2 was 100 and 180 mg∙L−1; 3) The activity of Ca2+-ATPase both in two kinds of salvia was inhibited when the concentration of CdCl2 was 140 mg∙L−1. But the degree of inhibition on the activity of Ca2+-ATPase in S. cavaleriei was less than that in S. meiliensis. The activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane of S. cavaleriei was inhibited when the concentration of CdCl2 was 180 mg∙L−1. However, the activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane of S. meiliensis was inhibited just when the concentration of CdCl2 was 100 mg∙L−1; 4) N and P contents of S. cavaleriei had lower than those in the control when the concentration of CdCl2 was 180 mg∙L−1. But N and P contents of S. meiliensis were lower than those in the control just when the concentration of CdCl2 is 140 mg∙L−1. This research shows that the tolerance levels of POD and CAT, these two kinds of antioxidase, in S. cavaleriei to the stress of CdCl2 were very high so that the peroxidation degree of its plasma membrane is lower than that of S. meiliensis. Besides, the tolerance of activities of Ca2+-ATPase and H+-ATPase in the root plasma membrane of S. cavaleriei to the stress of CdCl2 is very strong so that its degree of inhibition on N and P absorption is lower than that on S. meiliensis. It’s also the reason why the tolerance of S. cavaleriei to the stress of CdCl2 is higher than that of S. meiliensis.

1. 引言

2. 材料与方法

2.1. 试验材料

2.2. 试验方法

2.3. 测定方法

2.3.1. 生长指标的测定

2.3.2. MDA含量的测定

${C}_{\text{MDA}}=64.5\left({A}_{532}-{A}_{600}\right)-0.56{A}_{450}$

$\text{MDA}含量=\left[{C}_{\text{DMA}}×提取液总量\left(\text{ml}\right)\right]/植物组织鲜重\left(g\right)$

2.3.3. 抗氧化酶活性的测定

2.3.4. 根部质膜H+-ATP酶和质膜Ca2+-ATP活性测定

2.3.5. 营养元素N、P的测定

2.4. 数据分析

3. 结果与分析

3.1. CdCl2胁迫对两种鼠尾草生长的影响

Figure 1. Growth of Salvia cavaleriei and Salvia meiliensis under CdCl2 treatments

3.2. CdCl2胁迫对两种鼠尾草叶片抗氧化酶活性与MDA含量的影响

Figure 2. Effects of different concentrations of CdCl2 on MDA content，POD and CAT activity in leaves of S. meiliensis and S. cavalerier

3.3. CdCl2胁迫对两种鼠尾草根部质膜H+-ATP酶和质膜Ca2+-ATP酶活性的影响

Figure 3. Effects of different concentrations of CdCl2 on Ca2+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities in root of S. meiliensis and S. cavalerier

3.4. CdCl2胁迫对两种鼠尾草根部N、P含量的影响

Figure 4. Effects of different concentrations of Cd on N and P in root S. meiliensis and S. cavalerier

13.23%、3.28%，美丽鼠尾草N、P含量分别比对照低5.95%、11.60%。

3.5. 2种鼠尾草根部质膜H+-ATP酶活性、Ca2+-ATP酶活性、N含量 以及P含量之间的相关性分析

Table 1. Correlation analysis between plasma membrane H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase activity, N content and P content in two Salvia species (n = 30)

4. 讨论与结论

MDA含量常被作为植物细胞过氧化水平和受损程度的判断指标 [22] [23] [24] 。CAT和POD是细胞中重要的抗氧化酶，它们可以将H2O2转化为H2O，从而有效阻止H2O2的积累，防止质膜过氧化 [25] [26] [27] 。有研究表明，植物细胞内活性氧的产生速率超过了活性氧的清除速率，会使得植物膜质过氧化程度加重，MDA含量上升 [28] 。本研究，贵州鼠尾草和美丽鼠尾草MDA含量随着CdCl2浓度的增加而持续升高，表明2种鼠尾草细胞内H2O2的清除速率小于H2O2的生成速率，导致2种鼠尾草质膜受到伤害程度逐渐加大。随着CdCl2浓度增加，贵州鼠尾草POD和CAT活性受到的促进作用逐渐增强，但美丽鼠尾草POD和CAT活性所受的促进作用分别在CdCl2浓度为100、180 mg∙L−1时开始减弱。表明贵州鼠尾草POD和CAT这2种抗氧化酶对CdCl2胁迫的耐受性高，使得贵州鼠尾草质膜过氧化程度低于美丽鼠尾草，MDA含量的上升幅度小于美丽鼠尾草。