低碳经济  >> Vol. 1 No. 2 (November 2012)

台湾住宅时间电价与节电奖励制度之评析
Analysis of the TOU Rate Scheme and the Demand Reduction Incentive Scheme in Taiwan

DOI: 10.12677/JLCE.2012.12004, PDF, HTML, XML, 下载: 2,651  浏览: 7,685 

作者: 王京明, 郑郁儒:中华经济研究院能源与环境研究中心,台北

关键词: 时间电价节电奖励制度智慧电表Kolmogorov-Smirnov检定边际订价法 Time-of-Use Rate; Demand Reduction Incentive Scheme; Smart Meter;Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test; Marginal-Cost Pricing

摘要:

本文探讨住宅用户“时间电价”与“节电奖励制度”之利弊得失,采用Kolmogorov-Smirnov统计量检定台电目前住宅时间电价尖、离峰的划分方式能否真实反映实际负载分布之情况。现行的住宅时间电价尖离峰价差是否能有效率地反映出尖、离峰之发电成本差异,亦是本文探讨的焦点。此外,已造成台电公司相当亏损的“节电奖励制度”的实施成效亦值得检讨,本研究发现,如何让住户在适当的时间以及地理区位上节省电力消费,提升节能效益,是未来的改进方向。

Abstract: Over the past several years, the Taiwan Power Company has launched two smart pricing programs to assess the demand response of residential customers. Namely, the Time-of-Use (TOU) rate scheme de- signed for smart meter customers and the Demand Reduction Incentive (DRI) scheme for the residential sec- tor are typical examples. This paper discusses these two programs and evaluates their respective perform- ances. Our study adopts two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to evaluate the appropriateness of current par- titions in the electricity load profiles and develops an efficient approach based on marginal cost pricing to re- design the TOU rate scheme for effective load management. Although the DRI scheme performs well, further improvements in energy saving and carbon reduction is necessary to reach an efficient win-win solution among customers, the utility and society. This can be achieved via a careful design of incentive tariff dis- counts to take account of the time-of-use or location-specific features of the power supply/demand condition.

文章引用: 王京明, 郑郁儒. 台湾住宅时间电价与节电奖励制度之评析[J]. 低碳经济, 2012, 1(2): 21-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/JLCE.2012.12004

参考文献

[1] L. S. Friedman. The importance of marginal cost electricity pricing to the success of greenhouse gas reduction programs. Energy Policy, 2011, 39: 7347-7360.
[2] D. M. Kammem, et al. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas emission reductions from deploy-ing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Brookings-Google Plug-In Hybrid Summit, Washington DC, 2008.
[3] H. Allcott. Rethinking teal-time electricity pricing. Resource and Energy Economics, 2011, 33: 820-842.
[4] I. H. Rowlands and I. M. Furst. The cost impacts of a mandatory move to time-of-use pricing on residential customers: An Ontario (Canada) case-study. Energy Efficiency, 2011, 4(4): 571-585.
[5] S. Braithwait, D. Hansen and M. O’Sheasy. Retail elec-tricity pricing and rate design in evolving markets, technical report. Edison Electric Institute, Washington DC, 2007.
[6] 蔡定宇. 动态规划法应用于时间电价用户最佳契约容量之研究[D]. 国立台北科技大学电机工程系优质电力产业研发专班, 2010.
[7] 朱天鹏. 时间电价用户电源规划[D]. 明新科技大学电机工程研究所, 2009.
[8] 王京明. 浅谈时间电价[Z]. 能源报导, 能源局, 2011.
[9] 王京明, 史印芝. 我国住宅部门节能减碳电价订价策略之研究[C]. 亚太电协电力产业展览暨年会(CEPSI). Taipei Interna- tional Convention Center, 台北, 2010.
[10] 台湾经济研究院. 智慧电网下住宅时间电价研订策略之研究[Z]. 台电公司委托研究计划, 2011.
[11] 台湾综合研究院. 我国结合智能型电表系统之时间电价方案参与意愿调查[Z]. 经济部能源局委托研究计划, 2012.
[12] 台湾综合研究院. 经济部推动“电费折扣奖励节能措施”[Z]. 经济部能源局委托研究计划, 2012.
[13] 王京明. 节能减碳应重效率与公平[J]. 全球台商e电子报, 2012. http://twbusiness.nat.gov.tw/epaperArticle.do?id=169639939
[14] 经济部. 电价合理化方案: 合理价格、节能减碳、照顾民生[Z].中华民国经济部, 2011.
[15] 郭婷玮, 王京明. 我国电业自由化后电力现货市场电价之模拟[Z]. 经济专论(219), 中华经济研究院, 2008.
[16] 中华民国统计信息网[URL]. http://www.stat.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=4
[17] 内政部统计年报[URL]. http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/year/list.htm