# 海洋沉积物重金属污染评价方法研究 Assessment Methods of Heavy Metal Pollution in Marine Sediment

DOI: 10.12677/AMS.2020.74014, PDF, HTML, XML, 下载: 105  浏览: 242  科研立项经费支持

Abstract: With the rapid development of economy, heavy metal pollution in water sediments is becoming more and more serious. Therefore, study on heavy metal pollution evaluation becomes a hot topic. There are many kinds of evaluation methods about heavy metal pollution including comprehensive methods of pollution assessment, method of geoaccumulation index, potential ecological risk index method, biological effect concentration method, and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. In the process of practical application evaluation, multiple methods should be used to evaluate heavy metal pollution as much as possible, so as to make the evaluation result more accurate and reliable.

1. 引言

2. 评价方法

2.1. 综合污染指数法

1) 单因子指数法

${P}_{i}={C}_{i}/{S}_{i}$ (1-1)

Table 1. Quality standard for marine sediment (GB18668-2002)/mg∙kg−1

2) 多因子指数法

${I}_{SQJ}=\sum {W}_{i}{P}_{i}$ (1-2)

Table 2. Evaluation weight distribution of each pollution factor

Table 3. Total quality index classification by multi-factor index method

2.2. 地累积指数法

${I}_{geo}={\mathrm{log}}_{2}\left[{C}_{n}/\left(k×{B}_{n}\right)\right]$ (1-3)

Table 4. Relationship between classification standard of Geoaccumulation Index method and pollution degree

2.3. 潜在生态危害指数法

${C}_{f}^{i}={C}_{D}^{i}/{C}_{R}^{i};{E}_{r}^{i}={T}_{r}^{i}×{C}_{f}^{i}$ (1-4)

${C}_{d}={\sum }_{i}^{m}{C}_{f}^{i}$ (1-5)

$\text{RI}=\sum {E}_{r}^{i}=\sum {T}_{r}^{i}×{C}_{D}^{i}/{C}_{R}^{i}$ (1-6)

${C}_{f}^{i}$${E}_{r}^{i}$ 分别是第i种重金属的污染系数和潜在生态危害系数， ${T}_{r}^{i}$ 为毒性系数，用于反映重金属的毒性水平和生物对重金属的敏感程度(见表5)。潜在生态危害指数法分级标准见表6

Cd表示重金属总体污染程度指数；

${C}_{D}^{i}$ 为重金属i的实测值；

${C}_{R}^{i}$ 为重金属i最高背景值；

${E}_{r}^{i}$ 为单一重金属潜在生态风险指数；

RI为多种重金属的潜在危害指数。

Table 5. Toxicity coefficient of heavy metals and background values

Table 6. Classification standard of potential ecological risk index method

2.4. 生物效应浓度法

Table 7. Contents of heavy metals TEL and PEL in water and sediment

2.5. 沉积物富集系数法

${K}_{SEF}=\left({S}_{n}/{S}_{ref}\right)/\left({a}_{n}/{a}_{ref}\right)$ (1-7)

Table 8. Standard for sediment concentration coefficient and pollution classification

2.6. 尼梅罗综合污染指数法

$P=\sqrt{\frac{{\left({P}_{imax}\right)}^{2}+{\left({P}_{iavr}\right)}^{2}}{2}}$ (1-8)

Table 9. Nemerow comprehensive pollution index and pollution level classification standard

3. 结论

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