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Microgrids: Hierarchical Control and an Overview of the Control and Reserve Management Strategies

TL VandoornJC VasquezJ De KooningJM GuerreroL Vandevelde

centralised control distributed power generation distribution networks frequency control hierarchical systems power generation control voltage control DG units controllable loads coordinated approach

Abstract: The increasing share of distributed generation (DG) units in electrical power systems has a significant impact on the operation of the distribution networks, which are increasingly being confronted with congestion and voltage problems. This demands a coordinated approach for integrating DG in the network, allowing the DG units to actively contribute to frequency and voltage regulation. Microgrids can provide such coordination by aggregating DG, (controllable) loads, and storage in small-scale networks, which can operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode. In this article, the islanded operating condition is considered. As in the conventional networks, a hierarchical control structure can be implemented in islanded microgrids. In recent years, many different concepts for primary, secondary, and tertiary control of microgrids have been investigated. These controllers can be classified as either local or centralized. In this article, the hierarchical control for application in microgrids is discussed, and an overview of the control strategies is given with respect to the reserve provision by the DG units, loads, and storage equipment.